Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics Introduction - Kathleen A. Cooney, MD and William D. Foulkes MB PhD A) Epidemiology 1.0 THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROSTATE CANCER - Graham Giles, BSc, MSc, PhD INTRODUCTION Prostate structure and function Aspects of prostate pathology relevant to cancer epidemiology Prostate cancer diagnosis, screening and treatment 1.2 DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY 1.3 THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF CAUSES 1.3.1 Environmental factors not associated with prostate cancer 1.3.2 Environmental factors possibly associated with prostate cancer 126.96.36.199 Soy, other legumes and phytoestrogens 188.8.131.52 Cruciferous (Brassica) vegetables 184.108.40.206 Carotenoids, tocopherols and other vitamins 220.127.116.11 Animal based foods, fats and related exposures 18.104.22.168 Dairy foods, calcium and vitamin D 22.214.171.124 Trace elements and vitamin supplements 126.96.36.199 Dietary patterns 188.8.131.52 Energy balance, obesity and physical activity 184.108.40.206 Sexual behaviours and infections 1.3.3 Host factors possibly associated with prostate cancer 220.127.116.11 Sex steroid hormones 18.104.22.168 The IGF axis and growth factors 22.214.171.124 Inflammation 126.96.36.199 Family history and genetics 1.4 CONCLUSION 1.5 REFERENCES THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TESTICULAR CANCER - Katherine A. McGlynn, PhD, MPH and Michael B. Cook, PhD INTRODUCTION HISTOLOGY AND PRECURSOR LESIONS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY Incidence - Age patterns Incidence - Racial and geographicpatterns Mortality Migrant patterns 2.4 ASSOCIATED MEDICAL CONDITIONS 2.4.1 Cryptorchism 2.4.2 Subfertility 2.4.3 Microlithiasis 2.5 PRENATAL RISK FACTORS 2.5.1 Birth weight and gestational age 2.5.2 Maternal age 2.5.3 Maternal parity, birth order, sibship size 2.5.4 Maternal smoking 2.5.5 Other perinatal factors 2.6 MATERNAL ENDOGENOUS HORMONES 2.7 MATERNAL EXOGENOUS HORMONES 2.8 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION CHEMICALS 2.9 POSTNATAL RISK FACTORS 2.9.1 Anthropometry 2.9.2 Age at puberty 2.9.3 Nutrition 2.9.4 Endogenous hormones in men 2.9.5 Physical activity 2.9.6 Socioeconomic status and urban/rural residence 2.9.7 Occupation 2.9.8 Viruses 2.9.9 Other factors 2.10 HISTOLOGIC DIFFERENCES IN RISK FACTORS 2.11 FAMILY AND TWIN STUDIES 2.12 CANCER RISKS AMONG TESTICULAR CANCER SURVIVORS 2.13 CONCLUSION 2.14 REFERENCES B) Pathology 3.0 PROSTATE CANCER, A PATHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - Louis R. Bégin, MD and Tarek A. Bismar, MD 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 MICROANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY AS RELATED TO NEOPLASIA 3.3 GROSS FEATURES 3.4 MICROSCOPIC AND DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES 3.5 IMMUNOPHENOTYPE 3.6 GLEASON HISTOLOGICAL GRADING SYSTEM 3.7 PATHOLOGICAL PROGNOSTIC DETERMINANTS OTHER THAN GRADING 3.8 MODE OF TUMOR SPREADING 3.9 IATROGENIC HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES RESULTING FROM THERAPY 3.9.1 Radiation therapy effect 3.9.2 Androgen deprivation therapy effect 3.10 PUTATIVE PRECURSOR LESIONS OF PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA 3.10.1 Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3.10.2 Atypical adenomatoous hyperplasia 3.10.3 Glandular atrophy 3.11 ATYPICAL SMALL ACINAR
Knowledge about cancer genetics is rapidly expanding, and has implications for all aspects of cancer research and treatment, including molecular causation, diagnosis, prevention, screening, and treatment.
Additionally, while cancer genetics has traditionally focused on mutational events that have their primary effect within the cancer cell, recently the focus has widened, with evidence of the importance of epigenetic events and of cellular interactions in cancer development. The role of common genetic variation in determining the range of individual susceptibility within the population is increasingly recognized, and is now being widely addressed using information from the Human Genome Project. These new research directions will highlight determinants of cancer that lie outside the cancer cell, suggest new targets for intervention, and inform the design of strategies for prevention in groups at increased risk.
Today, the NCI is putting more and more money into research into the genetics of cancer. The very first of the NCI's stated research priorities is a project called The Cancer Genome Atlas. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing. The NCI and the NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute, where the series editor is employed) have each committed $50 million over three years to the TCGA Pilot Project.
This book proposes cover the latest findings in the genetics of male reproductive cancers; specifically cancers of the prostate and testes. The volume will cover the epidemiology of these cancers; model systems, pathology, molecular genetics, and inherited susceptibility.
Covers the latest findings in the genetics of male reproductive cancers; specifically cancers of the prostate and testes
Will cover the epidemiology of these cancers; model systems, pathology, molecular genetics, and inherited susceptibility