1885. With a posthumous essay on instinct by Charles Darwin. Romanes, British biologist, was personal friends with Charles Darwin who had substantial influence on his studies. Despite early strong religious beliefs, Romanes was converted to Darwinism. His work, Mental Evolution in Animals, traces the parallel development of intelligence in the animal world and in man. Contents: The Criterion of Mind; The Structure and Functions of Nerve-Tissue; The Physical Basis of Mind; The Root-Principles of Mind; Explanation of the Diagram; Consciousness; Sensation; Pleasures and Pains, Memory, and Association of Ideas; Perception; Imagination; Instinct; Reason; and Animal Emotions, and Summary of Intellectual Faculties.