Elihu Root (1845-1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He was the prototype of the 20th century "wise man", who shuttled between high-level government positions in Washington, D.C. and private- sector legal practice in New York City. In 1867, he graduated from the New York University School of Law. He went into private practice as a lawyer. Root was appointed U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York by President Chester A. Arthur. He was a member of the Union League Club of New York and twice served as its president, 1898-99, and again from 1915-16. He served as the United States Secretary of War 1899-1904 under William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. He reformed the organization of the United States Military. He was responsible for enlarging West Point and establishing the U. S. Army War College as well as the General Staff.