Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was a political radical and a leading theorist in Anglo- American philosophy of law. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism, for the concept of animal rights and his opposition to the idea of natural rights. Benthamâ¿¿s position included arguments in favour of individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the end of slavery, the abolition of physical punishment, the right to divorce, free trade and usury. He also made two distinct attempts during his life to critique the death penalty. Most of his writing was never published in his own lifetime; much of which was prepared for publication by others. His works include: Defence of Usury (1787), An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) and Panopticon; or, The Inspection-House (1791).