Nicholas Barbon (c. 1640-1698) (Full name: Nicholas Unless-Jesus-Christ-Had-Died-For-Thee- Thou-Hadst-Been-Damned Barbon) was an English economist, physician and financial speculator. He is counted among the critics of mercantilism and was one of the first proponents of the free market. He took a considerable part in the rebuilding of London after the great fire of 1666, and has a claim to be considered the institutor of fire-insurance in England, which he started one year after the Great Fire in 1667. His writings on political economy are interesting for expressing views much in advance of his time. In his books, he demanded wider economic freedom and supported fashion which, he believed, inclined people towards continuous purchasing of goods and therefore created constant demand. His works include: A Discourse of Trade (1690) and A Discourse Concerning Coining the New Money Lighter (1696).