Edward Carpenter (1844-1929) was an English socialist poet, an anthologist, and an early homosexual activist. He joined the Church of England as a curate and was influenced by the Christian Socialist movement. He travelled to Ceylon and India in 1890 and studied eastern religions. He developed a kind of "mystic socialism" which produced campaigns against air pollution and vivisection, promoted vegetarianism and "rational dress". In the 1890s, Carpenter began a campaign against sexual orientation discrimination. His 1908 book The Intermediate Sex, would become a foundational text of the LGBT movements of the 20th century. His groundbreaking 1908 anthology of poems, Lolaus: Anthology of Friendship was a huge underground success, leading to a more advanced knowledge of homoerotic culture.