Andrew George Little (1863-1945) was a British historian and a Professor of History in the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire. His works include: The Grey Friars in Oxford (1892), Mediaeval Wales: Chiefly in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (1902) and A Guide to Franciscan Studies (1920). "In the following lectures no attempt will be made to give a systematic account of a political development, which is the ordinary theme of history. History is "past politics" in the wide sense of the word. It has to do with the growth and decay of states and institutions, and their relations to each other. The history of Wales in the Middle Ages, viewed from the political standpoint, is a failure; its interest is negative; and in this introductory lecture I intend to discuss "the failure of the nation" (to use the words of Professor Rhys and Mr. Brynmor Jones) "to effect any stable and lasting political combination. " Wales failed to produce or develope political institutions of an enduring character-failed to become a state. "