John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known particularly for American military and patriotic marches. Because of his mastery of march composition and resultant prominence, he is known as "The March King". He wrote some 136 marches, and 9 operettas: The Smugglers (1882), Desiree (1883), The Queen of Hearts (also known as Royalty and Roguery) (1885), El Capitan (1896), The Bride Elect (1897), The Charlatan (also known as The Mystical Miss) (1898), Chris and the Wonderful Lamp (1899), The Free Lance (1905) and The American Maid (also known as The Glass Blowers) (1909). He also composed the music for 6 operettas that were either unfinished or not produced. He exhibited many talents aside from music. He wrote three novels: The Fifth String (1902), Pipetown Sandy (1905) and The Transit of Venus (1920) as well as a full-length autobiography, Marching Along (1928) and a great number of articles and letters-to-the-editor on a variety of subjects.