Text extracted from opening pages of book: ELECTRIC WELDING ELECTRIC WELDING BY ETHAN VIALL EDITOR AMERICAN MACHINIST Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Automotive Engineers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Franklin Institute, American Welding Society. Author of Manufacture of Artillery Ammunition, United States Artillery Ammunition, United States Rifles and Machine Guns, Broaches and Broaching, Gas-Torch and Thermit Welding. FIRST EDITION THIRD IMPRESSION McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4 1921 COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY THE McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PREFACE Few fields afford a greater opportunity for study to the mechanic, the student, or the engineer, than that of electric welding. Arc welding, with its practical, every-day, shop appli cations for repair and manufacture, is in some respects crowding closely into the field in which the gas-torch has seemed supreme. With the development of mechanical devices for the control of the arc, the range of application to production work has greatly increased. Resistance welding presents in its various branches some of the most interesting scientific and mechanical problems to be found anywhere. Spot-welding butt-welding line-welding all occupy a particular place in our manufacturing plants today, and new uses are being constantly found. In the gathering and arranging of the material used in this book, particular care has been taken to classify and place various subjects together as far as possible. This is not only convenient for reference purposes, but enables the reader to easily compare different makes and types of apparatus. In most cases, the name of the maker of each piece of apparatus is mentioned in the description in order to save the time of those seeking information. No time or pains have been spared in the endeavor to make this the most comprehensive book on electric welding equipment and practice, ever published. Every possible source of informa tion known to the long-experienced editor has been drawn upon and properly credited. It is hoped that this book will prove a permanent record of electric welding as it is today, and also be an inspiration and source of information for those engaged in practice, research or development. ETHAN VIALL. New York City, November, 1920. 3 CM 5 v o CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE v CHAPTER I ELECTRIC WELDING HISTORICAL 1-8 The Two Classes of Electric Welding The Zerner, the Ber nardos, the Slavianoff, the Strohmenger-Slaughter and the LaGrange-Hoho Processes Early Methods of Connecting for Arc Welding Early Resistance Welding Apparatus First Practical Butt-Welding Device DeBcnardo Spot-Welds The Kleinschmidt Apparatus Bouchayer's Machine Principle of the Harmatta Patent The Taylor Cross-Current Spot-Welding Method. CHAPTER II ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT 9-27 What Electric Arc-Welding Is^ Uses of B. C. and A. C. Schematic Layout for an Arc-Welding Outfit Carbon Electrode Process Metallic Electrode Process Selection of Electrodes Relation of Approximate Arc Currents and Electrode Diam eters Approximate Current Values for Plates of Different Thickness Illustrations of the Difference Between the Carbon and the Metallic Arc Methods Electrode Holders Sizes of Cable for Current Face Masks Selecting a Welding Outfit Eye Protection in Iron Welding Operations The Dangerous Rays Properties of Various Kinds of Glass. CHAPTER III DIFFERENT MAKES OF ARC WELDING SETS 28-46 General Electric Compound-Wound Balancer-Type Arc Weld ing Set The Welding Control Panel Connections for G. E. Welding Set Data for Metallic-Electrode Arc Butt-and Lap-Welds Carbon-Electrode Cutting Speeds The Wilson Plastic-Arc Set Panel for Wilson Welding and Cutting Set Wilson-Portable Outfit The Lincoln Outfit Westinghouse Single viii CONTENTS PAGE Operator Outfit The U. S. Outfit The Zeus Outfit The Arcwell Outfit Alternating-Current Are-Welding Apparatus G.