The first edition of this book, which was the first English Diophantus, appeared in 1885 and has long been out of print. It is with this in mind that the author endeavored to make accessible again the teachings contained within this rare tome. This edition contains the seminal mathematic work of Diaphanous in a more consolidated and applicable form, containing chapters such as: Diohantus and his Works, Diophantus' methods of solution, The porisms and other assumptions in Diohantus, as well as the complete Arithmetica and a number of relevant supplements. This classic text is a worthy addition to the library of any discerning mathematician and will appeal to collectors of historical mathematic texts. Sir Thomas Little Heath, was a mathematician, British civil servant, classical scholar, translator, historian of ancient Greek mathematics, and mountaineer. Originally written in 1910, this classic is proudly republished here with an introductory biography of the author.