OUTLINE OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTUREAN ACCOUNT FOR THE GENERAL READER OF ITS DEVELOPMENT FROM EARLY TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAYby A. H. GARDNERCONTENTS INTRODUCTION I. ORIGINS II. THE ELEVENTH CENTURY III. THE TWELFTH CENTURY IV. THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY V. THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY VI. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY VII. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY VIII. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY IX. THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY X. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY XI THE TWENTIETH CENTURY APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX INTRODUCTION THE aim of this book is to give a readable account of the develop ment of architecture in England, and it is written for the general reader who wishes to understand something of the buildings which form so rich a background to the English scene. Such an account must obviously be general even superficial in treatment, but the author has endeavoured to introduce sufficient detail to make it a serviceable work of reference on general principles, while maintaining a proper sense of proportion between the different periods. It is hoped that the continuity of architectural evolution has been sufficiently emphasized, for no greater harm can be done than to suggest that the subject may be subdivided into periods neatly labelled Lancet, Tudor, Regency and so forth, each open to individual admiration, castigation, or worse still reproduction. For the benefit of those who wish to make a more detailed study, a brief selected bibliography has been added, the essential books being particularly noted. The intention here is to show that architecture has always been a living and adventurous art, expressing both the hopes and failures of the age which produced it. Style in the period sense is the stamp of the age, and not something to be consciously acquired, as may readily be seen in the case of Gothic Revival, which is as different from the real thing as the Victorian age was from the mediaeval. Only in a few isolated cases was a false antique produced with such success as to puzzle the expert, for only where the purpose of the building, the design, construction and workmanship were mediaeval in character could an equivalent effect be expected. Imitation, in fact, if the sincerest form of flattery has always been a very secondrate form of art, though, as we shall see, typical of certain periods of development. We shall better understand the question of style if we consider the aims and limitations of the designer whether he be called architect, master mason, or whatever term was current for the species. His problems fell fairly clearly under three main heads. First, he must satisfy the requirements of his client with regard to the purpose served by his building, which may be quite simple, as in the case of a bam or tomb, or extremely complicated, as in a modem hospital. This we may kbel the problem of convenience or purpose. Second, he must observe the imposed by construction, so that his design can be translated into reality.