Über den Autor
Alex Rogers is a marine biologist working on the ecology and conservation of marine ecosystem. Most of his research has focused on Antarctic and deep-sea habitats, including seamounts, hydrothermal vents and cold-water corals. He uses molecular tools to help investigate the diversity and evolution of species and connectivity of populations of marine organisms. He has also worked extensively on human impacts on the oceans and the development of policies for improved management of the oceans.rnNadine Johnston is a marine ecologist. Her research is focused on the interaction of Scotia Sea species and their links to the circumpolar ocean (from a food web perspective) to understand the importance of spatial and temporal variability in the operation of this ecosystem.rnEugene Murphy has spent over 25 years working on polar marine ecosystems, as a marine ecologist and ecological modeller. His major interests are in the structure and function of oceanic ecosystems, and how biological and physical interactions at different scales affect the dynamics of marine populations, the overall structure of marine ecosystems amd their response to change.rnAndrew Clarke has spent the over 40 years working in polar regions, principally as a marine ecologist. His major interests are the elationship between temperature and the physiology and ecology of organisms, and how changes in climate over geological time have influenced the distribution and diversity of organisms.
ContributorsrnIntroduction: Antarctic ecology in a changing worldnAndrew Clarke, Nadine M. Johnston, Eugene J. Murphy & Alex D. RogersrnPart I: Terrestrial and freshwater habitatsnChapter 1. Spatial and temporal variability in terrestrial Antarctic biodiversity Steven L. Chown and Peter ConveyrnChapter 2. Global Change in a Low Diversity Terrestrial Ecosystem: The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Diana H. WallrnChapter 3. Antarctic lakes as models for the study of microbial biodiversity, biogeography and evolutionnDavid A. Pearce and Johanna Laybourn-ParryrnPart II: Marine habitats and regionsrnChapter 4. The impact of regional climate change on the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic PeninsulanAndrew Clarke, David K. A. Barnes, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Hugh W. Ducklow, John C. King, Michael P. Meredith, Eugene J. Murphy and Lloyd S. PeckrnChapter 5. The Marine Ecosystem of the West Antarctic PeninsulanHugh W. Ducklow, Andrew Clarke, Rebecca Dickhut, Scott C. Doney, Heidi Geisz, Kuan Huang, Douglas G. Martinson, Michael P. Meredith, Holly V. Moeller, Martin Montes-Hugo, Oscar Shofield, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Debbie Steinberg and William FraserrnChapter 6. Spatial and Temporal Operation of the Scotia Sea EcosystemnEugene J. Murphy, Jonathan L. Watkins, Phil N. Trathan, Keith Reid, Michael P. Meredith, Simeon Hill, Sally E. Thorpe, Nadine M. Johnston, Aandrew Clarke, Geraint Tarling, Martin Collins, Jaume Forcada, Angus Atkinson, Peter Ward, Iain Staniland, David Pond, Rachel Cavanagh, Rachael Shreeve, Rebecca Korb, Michael J. Whitehouse, Paul G. Rodhouse, Peter Enderlein, Aandrew Hirst, Anthony R. Martin, I. D. Briggs, Nathan Cunningham and Andrew FlemingrnChapter 7. The Ross Sea Continental Shelf: Regional Biogeochemical Cycles, Trophic Interactions, and Potential Future ChangesnWalker O. Smith, Jr., David G. Ainley, Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti and Eileen E. HofmannrnChapter 8. Pelagic ecosystems in the waters off East Antarctica (30°E-150°E) Stephen Nicol and Ben RaymondrnChapter 9. The dynamic mosaic: Disturbance and development of Antarctic benthic communitiesnDavid K.A. Barnes and Kathleen E. ConlanrnChapter 10. Southern Ocean deep benthic biodiversitynAngelika Brandt, Claude De Broyer, B. Ebbe, Kari E. Ellingsen, Andrew J. Gooday, D. Janussen, Stephanie Kaiser, Katrin Linse, M. Schueller, Michael R. A. Thomson, Paul A. Tyler and A. VanreuselrnChapter 11. Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variabilitynPhil N. Trathan, Jaume Forcada and Eugene J. MurphyrnPart III: Molecular adaptations and evolutionrnChapter 12. Molecular ecophysiology of Antarctic notothenioid fishesnC.-H. Christina Cheng and H. William Detrich IIIrnChapter 13. Mechanisms defining thermal limits and adaptation in marine ectotherms: an integrative viewnHans O. Pörtner, Lloyd S. Peck and George N. SomerornChapter 14. Evolution and biodiversity of Antarctic organisms; a molecular perspectivenAlex D. RogersrnPart IV: Conservation and management aspectsrnChapter 15. Biogeography and regional classifications of AntarcticanPeter Convey, David K. A. Barnes, Huw J. Griffiths, Susie M. Grant, Katrin Linse and David N. ThomasrnChapter 16. Conservation and Management of Antarctic EcosystemsnSusie M. Grant, Peter Convey, Kevin A. Hughes, Richard A. Phillips and Phil N. TrathanrnIndex
Since its discovery Antarctica has held a deep fascination for biologists. Extreme environmental conditions, seasonality and isolation have lead to some of the most striking examples of natural selection and adaptation on Earth. Paradoxically, some of these adaptations may pose constraints on the ability of the Antarctic biota to respond to climate change. Parts of Antarctica are showing some of the largest changes in temperature and other environmental conditions in the world. In this volume, published in association with the Royal Society, leading polar scientists present a synthesis of the latest research on the biological systems in Antarctica, covering organisms from microbes to vertebrate higher predators. This book comes at a time when new technologies and approaches allow the implications of climate change and other direct human impacts on Antarctica to be viewed at a range of scales; across entire regions, whole ecosystems and down to the level of species and variation within their genomes. Chapters address both Antarctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the scientific and management challenges of the future are explored.