Über den Autor
Elizabeth C. Zsiga is Professor in the Department of Linguistics at Georgetown University, where she has been a faculty member since 1994, teaching phonology and phonetics to both graduate and undergraduate students, with concentrations in theoretical, applied, and socio-linguistics. She has been published in numerous linguistics journals and books. Her research describes the sound systems of diverse languages including English, Igbo, Korean, Russian, Setswana, Serbian, and Thai.
Preface xvrn1 The Vocal Tract 1rn1.1 Seeing the vocal tract: tools for speech research 2rn1.2 Parts of the vocal tract 5rnChapter summary 11rnFurther reading 11rnReview exercises 12rnFurther analysis and discussion 13rnGo online 13rnReferences 13rn2 Basics of Articulation: Manner and Place in English 14rn2.1 The dance of the articulators 15rn2.2 Phonetic transcription 16rn2.3 The building blocks of speech 20rnChapter summary 29rnFurther reading 29rnReview exercises 30rnFurther analysis and discussion 32rnGo online 32rn3 A Tour of the Consonants 33rn3.1 Exotic sounds and the phonetic environment 34rn3.2 Pulmonic consonants 37rn3.3 Non-pulmonic consonants 45rn3.4 Positional variation in English 48rnChapter summary 51rnFurther reading 52rnReview exercises 52rnFurther analysis and discussion 53rnGo online 54rnReferences 54rn4 A Map of the Vowels 55rn4.1 The landscape 56rn4.2 Cardinal vowels 57rn4.3 Building inventories: dimensions of vowel quality 59rn4.4 Nasality and voice quality 66rn4.5 Length and diphthongs 67rn4.6 Tone 68rn4.7 Positional variants of the vowels of English 70rnChapter summary 71rnFurther reading 71rnReview exercises 72rnFurther analysis and discussion 73rnFurther research 74rnReferences 74rn5 Anatomy, Physiology, and Gestural Coordination 76rn5.1 Anatomy and physiology of respiration 77rn5.2 Anatomy and physiology of the larynx 79rn5.3 Anatomy of the supralaryngeal vocal tract 85rn5.4 Coordination of gestures 89rn5.5 Palatography 91rnChapter summary 94rnFurther reading 95rnReview exercises 96rnFurther analysis and discussion 97rnGo online 98rn6 The Physics of Sound: Pendulums, Pebbles, and Waves 99rn6.1 What is sound? 100rn6.2 Simple harmonic motion: a pendulum and a tuning fork 102rn6.3 Adding sinuosoids: complex waves 105rn6.4 Sound propagation 108rn6.5 Decibels 110rn6.6 Resonance 111rn6.7 The vocal tract as a sound-producing device: source-filter theory 114rnChapter summary 116rnFurther reading 116rnReview exercises 117rnFurther analysis and discussion 118rnGo online 118rn7 Looking at Speech: Waveforms, Spectra, andrnSpectrograms 119rn7.1 Pre-digital speech 120rn7.2 Digitization 122rn7.3 Looking at waveforms 129rn7.4 Spectra 131rn7.5 Spectrograms 137rnChapter summary 142rnFurther reading 143rnReview exercises 144rnFurther analysis and discussion 144rnGo online 148rnReferences 148rn8 Speech Analysis: Under the Hood 149rn8.1 Building sounds up 150rnconfigurations 159rn8.2 Breaking sounds down 160rnChapter summary 169rnFurther reading 170rnReview exercises 170rnFurther analysis and discussion 171rnGo online 172rnReferences 172rn9 Hearing and Speech Perception 173rn9.1 Anatomy and physiology of the ear 174rn9.2 Neuro-anatomy 181rn9.3 Speech perception 186rnChapter summary 194rnFurther reading 195rnReview exercises 195rnFurther analysis and discussion 196rnGo online 197rnReferences 197rn10 Phonology 1: Abstraction, Contrast, Predictability 198rn10.1 The necessity of abstraction 199rn10.2 Contrast and predictability: phonemes and allophones 203rn10.3 Some complicating factors 211rn10.4 Biuniqueness, Behaviorism, and the decline of phonemic analysis 214rnChapter summary 216rnFurther reading 216rnReview exercises 216rnFurther analysis and discussion 217rnFurther research 219rnGo online 219rnReferences 219rn11 Phonotactics and Alternations 221rn11.1 Phonotactic constraints 222rn11.2 Analyzing alternations 225rn11.3 Alternations: what to expect 232rnChapter summary 246rnFurther reading 246rnReview exercises 246rnFurther analysis and discussion 248rnGo online 250rnReferences 250rn12 What Is Possible Language?: Distinctive Features 253rn12.1 Introduction 254rn12.2 Distinctive features 257rn12.3 How have our hypotheses fared? 270rnChapter summary 271rnFurther reading 272rnReview exercises 272rnFurther analysis and discussion 272rnFurther research 274rnGo online 274rnReferences 274rn13 Rules and Derivations in Generative Grammar 275rn13.1 Generative grammars 276rn13.2 Underlying representations 277rn13.3 Writing rules 279rn13.4 Autosegmental representations and feature geometry 284rn13.5 How have our hypotheses fared? 298rnChapter summary 299rnFurther reading 299rnReview exercises 300rnFurther analysis and discussion 300rnFurther research 303rnGo online 303rnReferences 303rn14 Constraint-based Phonology 304rn14.1 Constraints and rules in linguistic theory 305rn14.2 The basics of Optimality Theory 309rn14.3 Example problem solving in OT 314rn14.4 Challenges and directions for future research 322rnChapter summary 324rnFurther reading 325rnReview exercises 325rnFurther analysis and discussion 325rnFurther research 329rnGo online 329rnReferences 329rn15 Syllables and Prosodic Domains 330rn15.1 Syllables 331rn15.2 The prosodic hierarchy 341rnChapter summary 348rnFurther reading 348rnReview exercises 349rnFurther analysis and discussion 350rnFurther research 000rnReferences 351rn16 Stress 353rn16.1 What is linguistic stress? 354rn16.2 Cross-linguistic typology 356rn16.3 A feature for stress? 360rn16.4 Metrical structure 360rn16.5 Stress in English 365rnChapter summary 370rnFurther reading 371rnReview exercises 371rnFurther analysis and discussion 372rnFurther research 374rnGo online 374rnReferences 374rn17 Tone and Intonation 375rn17.1 Tone 376rn17.2 Intonation 392rnChapter summary 397rnFurther reading 397rnReview exercises 398rnFurther analysis and discussion 399rnFurther research 399rnGo online 400rnReferences 400rn18 Diachronic Change 401rn18.1 Languages change 402rn18.2 Historical reconstruction 408rnhypothesis 411rn18.3 History of the sounds of English 415rnChapter summary 422rnFurther reading 422rnReview exercises 423rnFurther analysis and discussion 423rnFurther research 423rnGo online 425rnReferences 425rn19 Variation 426rn19.1 Variation by place 428rn19.2 Other sources of variation 437rn19.3 Formalizing variation 441rnChapter summary 444rnFurther reading 445rnReview exercises 445rnFurther analysis and discussion 446rnFurther research 446rnGo online 446rnReferences 446rn20 Acquisition and Learning 447rn20.1 Language Acquisition and Language Learning 448rn20.2 Child language acquisition: the data 448rn20.3 Theories of L1 acquisition 454rn20.4 L2 Learning 457rn20.5 Acquisition, Learning, and Linguistic Theory 461rnChapter summary 462rnFurther reading 462rnReview exercises 462rnFurther analysis and discussion 464rnFurther research 464rnGo online 464rnReferences 464rnIndex 465
The Sounds of Language is an introductory guide to the linguistic study of speech sounds, which provides uniquely balanced coverage of both phonology and phonetics.n* Features exercises and problem sets, as well as supporting online resources at www.wiley.com/go/zsiga, including additional discussion questions and exercises, as well as links to further resources such as sound files, video files, and useful websitesn* Creates opportunities for students to practice data analysis and hypothesis testingn* Integrates data on sociolinguistic variation, first language acquisition, and second language learningn* Explores diverse topics ranging from the practical, such as how to make good digital recordings, make a palatogram, solve a phoneme/allophone problem, or read a spectrogram; to the theoretical, including the role of markedness in linguistic theory, the necessity of abstraction, features and formal notation, issues in speech perception as distinct from hearing, and modelling sociolinguistic and other variationsn* Organized specifically to fit the needs of undergraduate students of phonetics and phonology, and is structured in a way which enables instructors to use the text both for a single semester phonetics and phonology course or for a two-course sequence