Über den Autor
Betty J. Birner is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English at Northern Illinois University. She is the author of several books, including The Discourse Function of Inversion in English (1996), Information Status and Noncanonical Word Order in English (with Gregory Ward, 1998), and Drawing the Boundaries of Meaning: Neo-Gricean Studies in Pragmatics and Semantics in Honor of Laurence R. Horn (with Gregory Ward, 2006).
Preface xrnAcknowledgments xiirn1 Defining Pragmatics 1rn1.1 Pragmatics and Natural Language 2rn1.2 The Boundary Between Semantics and Pragmatics 9rn1.3 Summary 34rn1.4 Exercises and Discussion Questions 36rn2 Gricean Implicature 40rn2.1 The Cooperative Principle 41rn2.2 Types of Implicature 62rn2.3 Testing for Implicature 68rn2.4 The Gricean Model of Meaning 73rn2.5 Summary 74rn2.6 Exercises and Discussion Questions 75rn3 Later Approaches to Implicature 77rn3.1 Neo-Gricean Theory 77rn3.2 Relevance Theory 91rn3.3 Comparing Neo-Gricean Theory and Relevance Theory 98rn3.4 Summary 107rn3.5 Exercises and Discussion Questions 108rn4 Reference 110rn4.1 Referring Expressions 110rn4.2 Deixis 114rn4.3 Defi niteness and Indefi niteness 121rn4.4 Anaphora 130rn4.5 Referential and Attributive Uses of Defi nite Descriptions 138rn4.6 Summary 142rn4.7 Exercises and Discussion Questions 143rn5 Presupposition 146rn5.1 Presupposition, Negation, and Entailment 146rn5.2 Presupposition Triggers 152rn5.3 The Projection Problem 155rn5.4 Defeasibility 157rn5.5 Presupposition as Common Ground 163rn5.6 Accommodation 167rn5.7 Summary 172rn5.8 Exercises and Discussion Questions 173rn6 Speech Acts 175rn6.1 Performative Utterances 175rn6.2 Felicity Conditions 183rn6.3 Locutionary Acts 186rn6.4 Direct and Indirect Speech Acts 191rn6.5 Face and Politeness 200rn6.6 Joint Acts 202rn6.7 Summary 203rn6.8 Exercises and Discussion Questions 204rn7 Information Structure 207rn7.1 Topic and Focus 210rn7.2 Open Propositions 215rn7.3 Discourse-Status and Hearer-Status 217rn7.4 Information Structure and Constituent Order 219rn7.5 Functional Compositionality 229rn7.6 Summary 235rn7.7 Exercises and Discussion Questions 236rn8 Inferential Relations 241rn8.1 Inferential Relations at the Constituent Level 243rn8.2 Inferential Relations at the Propositional Level 260rn8.3 Summary 268rn8.4 Exercises and Discussion Questions 269rn9 Dynamic Semantics and the Representation of Discourse 271rn9.1 Theoretical Background 272rn9.2 Static vs. Dynamic Approaches to Meaning 276rn9.3 Discourse Representation Theory 278rn9.4 The Scope of DRT and the Domain of Pragmatics 284rn9.5 Summary 290rn9.6 Exercises and Discussion Questions 291rn10 Conclusion 293rn10.1 The Semantics/Pragmatics Boundary Revisited 294rn10.2 Pragmatics in the Real World 296rn10.3 Pragmatics and the Future of Linguistic Theory 302rn10.4 Summary 304rn10.5 Exercises and Discussion Questions 304rnReferences 306rnSources for Examples 314rnIndex 318
Introduction to Pragmatics guides students through traditional and new approaches in the field, focusing particularly on phenomena at the elusive semantics/pragmatics boundary to explore the role of context in linguistic communication.
* Offers students an accessible introduction and an up-to-date survey of the field, encompassing both established and new approaches to pragmatics
* Addresses the traditional range of topics - such as implicature, reference, presupposition, and speech acts - as well as newer areas of research, including neo-Gricean theories, Relevance
* Theory, information structure, inference, and dynamic approaches to meaning
* Explores the relationship and boundaries between semantics and pragmatics
* Ideal for students coming to pragmatics for the first time