Über den Autor
Dominique Sportiche is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and Institut Jean Nicod at the Paris Institut d'Étude de la Cognition. Specializing in theoretical syntax, he has published widely on the syntax and the properties of the syntax/semantics interface of English and French.rnHilda Koopman is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her theoretical interests include theoretical syntax and morphology and comparative syntax. She has published on a wide range of topics covering many diverse languages. Her work is often based on original fieldwork.rnEdward Stabler is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles. His specialty is in computational models of human syntactic analysis and learning, and he has published on a wide range of topics in mathematical and computational linguistics.
Acknowledgments xvrn1 Introduction 1rn1.1 Where to Start 1rn1.2 What this Book is and is Not, and How to Use It 5rn1.3 Further Reading 6rn2 Morphology: Starting with Words 9rn2.1 Words Come in Categories 10rn2.2 Words are Made of Smaller Units: Morphemes 17rn2.3 Morphemes Combine in Regular Ways 18rn2.4 Apparent Exceptions to the RHHR 32rn2.5 Morphological Atoms 35rn2.6 Compositionality and Recursion 36rn2.7 Conclusion 37rn3 Syntactic Analysis Introduced 43rn3.1 Word Order 44rn3.2 Constituency 47rn3.3 Syntactic Productivity 48rn3.4 Substitution 50rn3.5 Ellipsis 58rn3.6 Coordination 62rn3.7 Movement and Other Distortions 68rn3.8 Some More Complex Distortion Experiments, Briefly 74rn3.9 Some More Practice 75rn3.10 Some Other Evidence of Constituency 76rn3.11 Conclusion 78rn4 Clauses 87rn4.1 Full Clauses: CPs 87rn4.2 Tense Phrase 94rn4.3 Conclusion 98rn5 Other Phrases: A First Glance 105rn5.1 Verb Phrases 105rn5.2 Determiner Phrases 113rn5.3 Noun Phrases 116rn5.4 Adjective Phrases 119rn5.5 Prepositional Phrases 119rn5.6 Ways to Talk About Tree Geometry 119rn5.7 Conclusion 120rn6 X-bar Theory and the Format of Lexical Entries 127rn6.1 Review: The Model of Morphology 127rn6.2 Building a Model of Syntax 129rn6.3 Headedness 130rn6.4 Internal Organization of Constituents 131rn6.5 Some Consequences 134rn6.6 Cross-categorial Symmetries 137rn6.7 Subjects Across Categories: Small Clauses 138rn6.8 Lexical Entries 140rn6.9 The Projection Principle and Locality 146rn6.10 Cross-linguistic Variation 149rn6.11 Conclusion 151rn7 Binding and the Hierarchical Nature of Phrase Structure 157rn7.1 Anaphors 159rn7.2 Pronouns 169rn7.3 Non-pronominal Expressions 171rn7.4 Binding Theory Summarized 172rn7.5 Small Clauses and Binding Theory 173rn7.6 Some Issues 174rn7.7 Cross-linguistic Variation 178rn7.8 Learning About Binding Relations 181rn7.9 Conclusion 183rn8 Apparent Violations of Locality of Selection 187rn8.1 Setting the Stage 187rn8.2 Topicalization: A First Case of Movement 189rn8.3 Head Movement 191rn8.4 Detecting Selection 206rn8.5 Phrasal Movements 210rn8.6 How Selection Drives Structure Building 221rn8.7 Addressing some Previous Puzzles 225rn8.8 Synthesis 226rn8.9 Terminology and Notation 230rn8.10 Conclusion 230rn9 Infinitival Complements: Raising and Control 239rn9.1 Subject Control 240rn9.2 Using the Theory: Control and Binding 244rn9.3 Interim Summary: Inventory of To-infinitival 248rn9.4 Raising to Object/ECM and Object Control 249rn9.5 Conclusion 252rn10 Wh-questions: Wh-movement and Locality 259rn10.1 Introduction 259rn10.2 The Landing Site or Target Position of Wh-Movement 261rn10.3 What Wh-movement Moves 263rn10.4 Locality I: The Problem 266rn10.5 Locality II: Theory of Constraints 281rn10.6 Special Cases 293rn10.7 Conclusion 298rn11 Probing Structures 305rn11.1 Introduction 305rn11.2 Probing Derived Structures 305rn11.3 Probing Underlying Structures 312rn11.4 Probing with Binding 315rn11.5 Conclusion 324rn12 Inward Bound: Syntax and Morphology Atoms 331rn12.1 The Size of Atoms 332rn12.2 Head Movement and the Head Movement Constraint 332rn12.3 Causative Affixes: Syntax or Morphology? 335rn12.4 VP Shells 339rn12.5 Ternary Branching 348rn12.6 Using VP Shells: VP Shells and Adjuncts 357rn12.7 Terminological Changes 362rn12.8 Raising to Object 363rn12.9 The Model of Morphosyntax 364rn12.10 Conclusion 367rn13 Advanced Binding and Some Binding Typology 377rn13.1 Basics: Reminders 377rn13.2 Reminder About Principle A 380rn13.3 Subjects of Tensed Clauses 380rn13.4 VP shells and the Binding Theory 382rn13.5 Binding Variation and Typology 387rn13.6 Conclusion 397rn14 Wh-constructions 403rn14.1 Diagnostic Properties of Wh-movement 403rn14.2 Relative Clauses 405rn14.3 Another Case of Null Operator Movement: Tough-Construction 413rn14.4 Topicalization and Left Dislocation 415rn14.5 Other Wh-movement Constructions 417rn14.6 Conclusion 419rn15 Syntactic Processes 421rn15.1 The Language Model: Defining Structure 422rn15.2 Selection, Movement, Locality 423rn15.3 Computational Properties of the Model 427rn15.4 Conclusion 433rnReferences 435rnIndex
An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory offers beginning students a comprehensive overview of and introduction to our current understanding of the rules and principles that govern the syntax of natural languages.n* Includes numerous pedagogical features such as 'practice' boxes and sidebars, designed to facilitate understanding of both the 'hows' and the 'whys' of sentence structuren* Guides readers through syntactic and morphological structures in a progressive mannern* Takes the mystery out of one of the most crucial aspects of the workings of language - the principles and processes behind the structure of sentencesn* Ideal for students with minimal knowledge of current syntactic research, it progresses in theoretical difficulty from basic ideas and theories to more complex and advanced, up to date concepts in syntactic theory