List of Contributing Authors 1 INTRODUCTION.- 1.1 Background.- 1.2 Theoretical tools.- 1.3 The aim of the book 2 METHODOLOGIES.- 2.1 Background.- 2.2 Dynamic modelling.- 2.3 Statistical methods.- 2.4 On Field Measurements.- 2.5 SMEAR network.- 3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.- 3.1 Annual cycle of environmental factors.- 3.2 Temporal and spatial variation: atmosphere.- 3.3 Temporal and spatial variation: soil.- 4 TRANSPORT.- 4.1 Molecular transport.- 4.2 Convection.- 4.3 Radiative transport.- 4.4 Summary of transport phenomena.- 5 STRUCTURE.- 5.1 Hierarchy of structure.- 5.2 Vegetation.- 5.3 Structure of the atmosphere.- 5.4 Soil.- 6 PROCESSES.- 6.1 Temporal and spatial scale of processes and fluxes.- 6.2 Physical and chemical processes.- 6.3 Vegetation processes.- 6.4 Soil processes.- 7 FROM PROCESSES AND TRANSPORT TO TREES, ECOSYSTEMS AND ATMOSPHERE.- 7.1 Mathematical tools.- 7.2 Atmospheric Processes and Transport.- 7.3 Environmental factors in the canopy.- 7.4 Environmental factors in soil.- 7.5 Tree level.- 7.6 Stand level.- 7.8 Aerosol particles in the air.- 7.9 Annual energy, carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and amounts at SMEAR II.- 8 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PROCESSES, TRANSPORT AND STRUCTURE.- 9 MICROFOREST.- 9.1 Growth and development of forest ecosystems; The MicroForest Model.- 9.2 Testing MicroForest.- 10 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BOREAL FORESTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE.- 10.1 Climate change.- 10.2 Climate Change and Boreal Forests.- 10.3 Feedback from boreal forests to climate change.- 10.4 Evaluation of the connections between boreal forests and climate change.- 11 CONCLUDING REMARKS.- REFERENCES, INDEX
The Forest Primary Production Research Group was born in the Department of S- viculture, University of Helsinki in the early 1970s. Intensive ?eld measurements of photosynthesis and growth of forest vegetation and use of dynamic models in the interpretation of the results were characteristic of the research in the group. Electric instrumentation was based on analogue techniques and the analysis of the obtained measurements was based on self-written programs. Joint research projects with the Research Group of Environmental Physics at the Department of Physics, lead by Taisto Raunemaa (1939-2006) started in the late 1970s. The two research groups shared the same quantitative methodology, which made the co-operation fruitful. Since 1980 until the collapse of the Soviet Union the Academy of Finland and the Soviet Academy of Sciences had a co-operation program which included our team. The research groups in Tartu, Estonia, lead by Juhan Ross (1925-2002) and in Petrozawodsk, lead by Leo Kaipiainen (1932-2004) were involved on the Soviet side. We had annual ?eld measuring campaigns in Finland and in Soviet Union and research seminars. The main emphasis was on developing forest growth models. The research of Chernobyl fallout started a new era in the co-operation between forest ecologists and physicists in Helsinki. The importance of material ?uxes was realized and introduced explicitly in the theoretical thinking and measurements.
Comprehensive summary of vegetation - climate change interplay
New results in ecophysiology, tree growth and in climate change - Boreal forest interactions
Use of modern instrumentation
Multi-, cross- and interdisciplinary text