Foreword. n1. Modern Meteorology and Atmospheric Icing; Svein M. Fikke et al. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Atmospheric Icing - A Brief Survey of Icing Processes and their Meteorological Aspects. 1.3 Icing Models. 1.4 Introduction of Numerical Weather. Prediction Models. 1.5 Some Preliminary Applications of Fine-Scale Models. 1.6 Condensation Schemes in NWP Models - Relevance for Icing Prediction. 1.7 A Case Study: Using Numerical Weather Prediction Models to Forecast In-cloud Atmospheric Icing. Episodes. 1.8 Concluding Comments. n2. Statistical Analysis of Icing Event Data for Transmission Line Design Purposes; Masoud Farzaneh and Konstantin Savadjiev. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Measurements and Database. 2.3 Statistical Analysis and Modelling Ice Loads on Overhead Transmission Lines. 2.4 Conclusions. n3. Numerical Modelling of Icing on Power Network Equipment; Lasse Makkonen, Edward P. Lozowsk. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 The Fundamental Equation of Icing. 3.3 Computing the Rate of Icing. 3.4 Numerical Modelling. 3.5 Conclusions. n4. Wet Snow Accretion on Overhead Lines; Pierre Admirat. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Microphysics of Wet Snow. 4.3 Thermodynamic Analysis of Heat Exchanges. 4.4 Modelling the Cylindrical Growth of Wet Snow Sleeves. 4.5 Simulation of Accretion Mechanisms in Wind Tunnel Conditions. 4.6 Observation of Accretion Mechanisms in Natural Climatic Conditions. 4.7 Applications to Forecasting, Preventing, and Mapping the Wet Snow Overload Hazard. n5. Effect of Ice and Snow on the Dynamics of Transmission Line Conductors; Pierre Van Dyke et al. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Aeolian Vibrations. 5.3 Wake-induced Oscillation. 5.4 Galloping Conductors. 5.5 Protection Methods. 5.6 Galloping Amplitudes. 5.7 Ice Shedding. 5.8 Bundle Rolling. 5.9 Conclusion. n6. Anti-icing and De-icing Techniques for Overhead Lines; Masoud Farzaneh et al. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Anti-icing Techniques. 6.3 De-icing Techniques. 6.4 Joule-Effect Methods. 6.5 Methods for Limiting IceAccretion Weight. 6.6 Practical Aspects. 6.7 New Developments in Anti-icing Methods. 6.8 Conclusions. n7. Effects of Ice and Snow on the Electrical Performance of Power Network Insulators; Masoud Farzaneh, William A. Chishol. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Insulator Functions, Dimensions and Materials. 7.3 Ice and Snow Accretion on Insulators. 7.4 Ice Flashover Processes and Mechanisms. 7.5 Cold-Fog Flashover Process and Mechanisms. 7.6 Snow Flashover Process and Mechanisms. 7.7 Mathematical Modelling of Flashovers on Insulators Covered with Ice or Snow. 7.8 Recommended Test Methods. 7.9 Insulation Coordination for Ice and Snow Conditions. 7.10 Mitigation Options to Improve Network Reliability in Winter Flashover Conditions. 7.11 Conclusions and Recommendations. n8. Design of Transmission Lines for Atmospheric Icing; Anand Goel. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Types of Atmospheric Icing Accretion. 8.3 Ice Accretion on Overhead Line Conductors and Structures. 8.4 Ice Load Measurements. 8.5 Standards for Ice Loads. 8.6 Transmission Line System. 8.7 Design Methodology. 8.8 Deterministic Design Approach. 8.9 Reliability-based Design (RBD) Approach. 8.10 Return Period. 8.11 Variability of Component Resistance. 8.12 Other Loads. 8.13 Ice/Snow Accretion Mitigation Techniques. 8.14 Lessons from the 1998 Ice Storm. 8.15 Concluding Remarks. nAppendix 8.A. nIndex.
Atmospheric ice takes a wide range of fascinating forms, all beautiful in their own ways but many posing severe risk to the security of overhead networks for electric power, communications and other systems. This comprehensive book documents the fundamentals of atmospheric icing and surveys the state of the art in eight chapters, each written by a team of experienced and internationally renowned experts. The treatment is detailed and richly illustrated. The presentation follows a logical sequence, starting with the icing climate and meteorological conditions, proceeding through development of observations and models of accretion and release of ice and heavy snow, then considering static and dynamic mechanical loads, the effects of ice and snow on electrical insulation, de-icing, ice prevention and mitigation methods. The statistical analysis of icing data and the mathematical and numerical modelling support appropriate mechanical and electrical design processes for icing conditions on overhead lines. Technical specialists, researchers and students in engineering and environmental science will all find value throughout the text.
Although there are many papers and proceedings of specialized conferences on atmospheric icing, none of these distil the results sufficiently to support a line design process
Overhead design practitioners presently use a standards-based, deterministic process. Internationally, standards are moving to incorporate probabilistic design methods. The existing experts need to understand where the distributions come from and know how to use them
The book has a clear and tight focus, expressed in the title
The book has been developed by a strong team of utility and academic experts, jointly participating in a series of bi-annual International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS), who are motivated to discuss ways to reduce devastation from atmospheric icing at a practical cost