Preface.- Acknowledgement.- The Terrorist Pallet of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Fuels; H. Schubert.- Overview of Liquid Explosives Detection; A.V. Kuznetsov, O.I. Osetrov.- Chemistry and Properties of Liquid Explosives; P. Mostak.- What's Special about Liquid Explosives?; J.C. Oxley.- Search of Explosives in Vehicles by Using Tagged Neutrons; G. Viesti et al.- Optimization of Hardware are for Tagged Neutron Technology; M.D. Karetnikov et al.- Detection of Liquid and Homemade Explosives: What Do We Need to Know about their Properties?; D. Menning, H. Östmark.- Detector of Hazardous Substances Based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis; V.A. Kalinin et al.- Some Detection Procedures for Liquid Explosives; M. Stancl, M. Kyncl.- Detection of Explosives Using Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Rays in Nitrogen: A Russian/US Collaboration; T.J.T. Kwan et al.- A Device for Detecting Concealed Explosives; V.A. Teryokhin, Yu.I. Chernukhin.- Trace and Bulk Detection of Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Neutron Analysis; D. Rondeshagen et al.- Possibilities of Liquid Explosives Countermeasures at Airports; J. Turecek.- Close-Range and Standoff Detection and Identification of Liquid Explosives by Means of Raman Spectroscopy; I. Johansson et al.- Directional Detection of Nitrogen and Hydrogen in Explosives by Use of a DD-Fusion-Driven Thermal Neutron Source; K. Masuda et al.- Discrimination of the Explosives from Other Materials by Using the Tagged Neutron Beam; D. Sudac, V. Valkovic.- Detection of Liquid Explosives and/or Flammable Liquids by Different Techniques; G. Bunte et al.- Hilbert Spectroscopy of Liquids for Security Screening; Y. Divin et al.- Liquid Explosives - The Threat to Civil Aviation and the European Response; C.J. de Ruiter.- Miniaturized Photonic Sensor Devices for Real Time Explosive Detection; W. Schade et al.- Conceptual Design of a Hand-held Liquid Checker Based on Compton Backscatter Method; L. Guorong.-
The organization of an Advanced Research Workshop with the title "Detection and Disposal of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism" was motivated by international findings about activities in this field of application. This ARW followed a meeting about the "Detection of Disposal Improvised Explosives" (St. Petersburg, 2005). Both items show the logistic problems as one of the lessons, terrorists have to overcome. These problems are connected with the illegal supply and transport of explosives and fuels and as counter-measure the detection of these materials. The invention of liquid explosives goes back to the middle of the 19th century and was used for special purposes in the commercial field of application. Because of the high sensitivity of liquid explosives against mechanical shock, caused by adiabatic compression of air-bobbles producing "hot spots" as origin of initiation the commercial application was not very successful. Because of this high risk, liquid explosives are not used in military or commercial application with some exceptions. In the commercial field explosives as slurries or emulsions consisting of suitable salts (Ammoniumnitrate etc.) and water are used to a large extend because of their high insensitivity. In many cases these slurries or emulsions were unfit for terrorist actions, because of their low sensitivity, large critical diameter and using in confinement. In the military field liquid explosives are used in World War I and II as bomb-fillings.
The proceedings of this workshop are the only possibility to gain information outside the area of secrecy about the state of the art in this special field of application
Activities in this area by Russian researchers are of special interest and will be a starting point for NATO Russian Research Cooperation
Because of this very special item of research, this workshop gives an outstanding platform of basis of international information exchange about the detection of explosives in connection with terrorism