Introduction.- 1. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in Terrestrial Ecosystems.- 1.1 Forms and quantities of carbon and nitrogen on earth.- 1.2 Carbon and nitrogen in terrestrial phytomass.- 1.3 Carbon and nitrogen in soils.- 1.4 Global vegetation-soil organic matter interrelationships.- 2. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems.- 2.1 The global carbon cycle.- 2.2 The global nitrogen cycle.- 2.3 Carbon and nitrogen cycling in soils.- 2.4 Global climate change and C and N cycling.- 3. Soil Organic Matter Characterization.- 3.1 Chemical characterization of soil organic matter.- 3.2 Physical characterization of soil organic matter.- 3.3 Morphological characterization of soil organic matter.- 4. Organic Matter and Soil Quality.- 4.1 Soil quality.- 4.2 Impact of SOM on soil physical, chemical and biological properties.- 4.3 Evaluation of organic components as soil quality indicators.- 4.4 Use of combined biological parameters for soil quality estimation.- 5. Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Soils.- 5.1 Transformations of organic components.- 5.2 Transformations of inorganic components.- 6. Anthropogenic Activities and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen.- 6.1 Land use changes.- 6.2 Agricultural management.- 6.3 Ecosystem disturbance.- 7. Leaching Losses and Groundwater Pollution.- 7.1 Dissolved organic carbon.- 7.2 Dissolved organic nitrogen.- 7.3 Nitrate leaching.- 8. Bidirectional Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions.- 8.1 Atmospheric Nitrogen Depositions.- 8.2 Carbon fixation via photosynthesis.- 8.3 Biological N2 fixation.- 8.4 Carbon dioxide emission.- 8.5 Methane emission.- 8.6 Emission of oxides of nitrogen: N2O and NO.- 8.7 Ammonia emission.- 8.8 Global climate change and crop yields.- 8.9 Economics of carbon sequestration.- 9. Modelling Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System.- 9.1 Carbon dioxide exchange from soils.- 9.2 Methane emission from rice fields and natural wetlands.- 9.3 Nitrogen trace gas emission.- 9.4 Modelling nitrogen dynamics in soils.- 9.5 Modelling organic matter dynamics in soils.- References.- Index.
Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases.
Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.
Provides an integrated and wholesome view of the C and N cycling and interrelationships between different aspects in terrestrial ecosystems
Highlights issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change, and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases
Presents state of the art in modelling soil-atmosphere-climate interactions and their use for generating scenarios of unprecedented magnitude in the area of C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems
Provides quantitative information on the bi-directional exchange of carbon and nitrogen from natural and anthropogenic sources at global, regional, and ecosystem level
Provides an exhaustive and up to-date literature review with more than 1600 references