Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation. Because nitrogen-fixation research is multidisciplinary, exploiting its benefits for agriculture and environmental protection has continued to attract research by diverse groups of scientists, including chemists, biochemists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, agricultural scientists, extension agents, and inoculant producers. The 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation was held jointly with the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. This joint Congress was hosted in South Africa at the Cape Town International Conv- tion Centre, 21-26 January 2007, and was attended by about 200 registered participants from 41 countries world-wide. During the Congress, some 100 oral and approximately 80 poster papers were presented. The wide range of topics covered and the theme of the Congress justifies this book's title, Nitrogen Fixation: Applications to Poverty Alleviation.
Keynote Address.- Gene Discovery and Marker Development in Crop Legumes.- Towards Sustainable Agriculture.- Nutrient Mining or Carbon Sequestration? BNF Inputs Can Make the Difference.- Tripartite Symbiotic System of pea (Pisum sativum L.): Applications in Sustainable Agriculture.- Plant Growth-Promoting Diazotrophs: Optimising their Role as Key Agents in Achieving More Efficient Nutrient Use by Field Crops.- Multi-Factor Approach to Identifying Cowpea Genotypes with Superior Symbiotic Traits and Higher Yield for Africa.- BNF Applications for Poverty Alleviation.- Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Resource-Poor Agriculture in South Africa.- Combating Food Insecurity on Sandy Soils in Zimbabwe: The Legume Dilemma.- Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture: Forage Legumes in Sweden as an Example.- Biological Nitrogen Fixation with the Soybean and Common Bean Crops in the Tropics.- Biodiversity in Amazonian Dark Earth: A Contribution for the Sustainability of Tropical Soils from the Microbial Symbioses.- Techniques for the Quantification of Plant-Associated Biological Nitrogen Fixation.- Measuring N2 Fixation in Legumes Using 15N Natural Abundance: Some Methodological Problems Associated with Choice of Reference Plants.- How to Quantify Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Forage Legumes in the Field.- Nodular Diagnosis for Integrated Improvement of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cropping Systems.- Evaluation of Seed and Liquid Inoculation on Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Grain Yield of Soybean.- Initiation, Localization, and Growth of Nodules within the Root System of Pea as Affected by Assimilate Availability.- Enhanced Early Nodulation of Medicago Truncatula Co-Inoculated with Sinorhizobium Medicae and Achromobacter Xylosoxidans.- Gene Transfer in the Environment Promotes the Rapid Evolution of a Diversity of Suboptimal and Competitive Rhizobia for Biserrula pelecinus L..- Effect of a Genetically Modified Rhizobium leguminosarum Strain on Bacterial and Fungal Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Pisum sativum.- Inoculants for Sugar Cane: The Scientific Bases for the Adoption of the Technology for Biofuel Production.- Detection and Enumeration of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.- Nodulated Tree Legumes and Their Symbiotic Bradyrhizobium in African and South-American Tropical Rainforests.- Innovative Microbial Approaches to the Management of Acacia senegal Trees to Improve and Sustain Gum-Arabic Production in Sub-Saharan Africa.- Acacia Species Used for Revegetation in South-Eastern Australia Require More than One Multi-Strain Rhizobial Inoculant.- Management of Symbionts in Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Leguminosae) Based Agroforestry Systems to Improve Growth, Productivity, Quality of Fodder, and Biological N2 Fixation.- Legume Trees in the Coffee Agroecosystem of Puerto Rico.- Nodulation Adapted to Habitat Submergence.- Mechanism of Quick and Reversible Inhibition of Soybean Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation Activity by Nitrate and its Metabolites.- Inhibition of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Dark Chilling in Soybean.- Do Nodule Phosphatase and Phytase Link with the Phosphorus Use Efficiency for N2-Dependent Growth in Phaseolus vulgaris ?.- The Alternative Sigma Factor rpoH2 is Required for Salt Tolerance in Sinorhizobium sp. Strain BL3.- Root-Nodule Bacteria of Arid-Zone Legumes for Use in Rehabilitation in the Shark Bay World Heritage Area.- Effect of Vegetation Clearing on the Nitrogen Cycle and Water Resource Quality in South Africa.- Biorhizoremediation of Heavy Metals Toxicity Using Rhizobium-Legume Symbioses.- The Commercialisation of Small Holder Agriculture Through Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Soybean.- Estimates of N2 Fixation in Cowpea Grown in Farmers' Fields in the Upper West Region of Ghana.- Integrating N2-Fixing Legumes, Soils, and Livelihoods in Southern Africa: A Consortium Approach.- Distribution of Promiscuous Soyabean Rhizobia in Some Zimbabwean Soils.- Ecophysiological Studies of Legumes in B
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