Chapter One - Introduction n1. A Brief History of the Use of Sound in the Ocean n2. Ambient Noise in the Sean3 Effects of Sound on Marine Mammalsn4. Regulation of Noise in the Ocean-Some BackgroundnnChapter Two - Scientific Aspects of Underwater Sound n1. The Physics of Underwater Soundn2. Effects of Acoustic Emissionsn2.1 Health Threats to Marine Mammalsn2.2 Health Threats to Humansn2.3 Threats to other Marine Lifen2.4 Acoustic Interferencen3. Summary - Effects of Acoustic Emissionsn4. Sources of Naturally-Occurring Sound in the Oceann4.1 Physical and Geophysical Sourcesn4.2 Biological Sourcesn4.3 Sounds from Marine Mammalsn5. Anthropogenic Sound in the Sean5.1 Is Ambient Noise Increasing?n5.2 The Many Uses of Sonarn5.3 Shipping and Shipping Trendsn5.4 Dredging and Coastal Constructionn5.5 Offshore Oil and Mineral Explorationn5.6 Recreational Boatingn5.7 Fishing and Aquaculturen5.8 Military Activities n5.9 Oceanographic Researchn5.10 Other Sources n5.11 Ambient Noise Summaryn6. Hotspots - Sensitive Areas of Intense Acoustic Activityn6.1 Stellwagen Bank n6.2 The Ligurian Sea n6.3 Other HotspotsnnChapter Three - Focusing Events n1. What are Focusing Events? n2. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations n2.1 What are Environmental NGOs? n2.2 Public Perception of Marine Mammals n2.3 The Natural Resources Defense Council n2.4 Other NGOs involved in Ocean Noise Pollution n2.5 The Emergence of New NGOs n3. Key Focusing Events n3.1 Ship Shock Testing n3.2 Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) n3.3 The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) n3.4 Greek Whale Strandings and NATO n3.5 Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS) n3.6 Bahamas Strandings n3.7 Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD) n3.8 Other Focusing Events n4. Other Factors Contributing to the Noise Controversy nnChapter Four - Policy Development n1. Trail Smelter and Regulation of Transboundary Pollutants n2. The Pollution Provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention n3. Ocean Noise as a Transbounday Pollutant n4. Previous Regulation of Transboundary Pollutants n4.1 Thermal Ocean Pollution n4.2 Radiation n4.3 Air Pollution n5. Existing International Regulatory Framework n5.1 The United Nations Environmental Programme n5.2 The International Maritime Organization n5.3 International Whaling Commission n5.4 International Seabed Authority n5.5 The European Union n5.6 The Use of Regional Agreements n5.6.1 The OSPAR Convention n5.6.2 The Arctic Council n5.6.3 ASCOBANS n5.6.4 ACCOBAMS n5.6.5 NATOnnChapter Five - Politics, Potential Solutions, and Obstacles n1. International Institutions n1.1 The Value of International Regimes and Organizations n1.2 GESAMP n1.3 The Development of an International Treaty n2. Conventional Approaches to Pollution Control n3. Policy Instruments for Addressing Ocean Noise Pollution n3.1 Taxes n3.2 Performance Bonds and Subsidies n3.3 Permits n3.4 Technological Standards- BAT and BPT n3.5 Best Practicable Environmental Option n3.6 Bans and Zoning n3.7 Marine Protected Areas n4. The Trend Toward Ecosystem Based Ocean Management n5. Policy Instruments - A SummarynnChapter Six - The Use Of Marine Protected Areas n1. Unilateral MPAS in the U.S. and Abroad n2. Multilateral MPAs n3. The Potential of MPAs to Prevent Acoustic Disturbance n4. Zoning in MPAs n4.1 Activity-Specific Zones n4.2 Individual Source-Specific Zones n4.3 Buffer Zones n5. Challenges in Implementing MPAs and ZoningnnChapter 7 - Conclusion n1. The Politics of Policy-Making n1.1 Where is the Issue of Ocean Noise? n1.2 Incrementalism and Public Policy n2. Summary of Findings nAppendix A - Glossary nAppendix B - List of Acronyms nBibliography
Numerous incidents suggest that man-made sound injures and can kill marine mammals. This book offers an objective look at how ocean noise should be addressed given the lack of regulatory structure and the scientific uncertainty over the effects of noise on marine life. It is an essential text for policymakers, governments and NGOs, biologists, environmental activists, , oceanographers, and those in the shipping, engineering, and offshore oil and gas industries.