Nuclear receptors in the Membrane. 1. Membrane-associated estrogen receptors and breast cancer; D.C. Márquez, R.J. Pietras. 2. A membrane form of estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogenic, nongenomic effects; C.S. Watso, et al. 3. An expanded view of estrogen receptor localization in neurons; T.A. Milner, et al. 4. Regulation of endothelial no synthase activity by estrogen receptors in a steroid receptor fast-action complex (SRFC); P.W. Shaul. 5. Estrogen-stimulated, membrane-initiated receptor-ligand interactions in vascular cells; Lei Li, et al. 6. Membrane glucocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid signal transduction; B. Gametchu, C.S. Watson. 7. Nuclear vitamin D (VDR) and estrogen (ER) receptors in the membrane of muscle and breast cancer cells; D. Capiati, et al. Nuclear Receptors Physically Interact with Signal Cascade Molecules. 8. The role of adapter proteins in ERalpha membrane association and function; R. X.-D. Song, R. Kumar. 9. Interactions of estrogen receptors with signal cascade molecules; F. Auricchio, et al. 10. Human progesterone receptor cross-talk with cytoplasmic signaling molecules through direct SH3 domain interaction; V. Boonyaratanakornkit, D.P. Edwards. 11. The classical progesterone receptor mediates Xenopus oocyte maturation through a non-genomic mechanism; X.J. Liu, J.V. Ruderman. 12. Steroid hormone receptor interactions with PAK6. a member of the P21 activated kinase family; S.P. Balk, S.R. Lee. 13. Membrane localization and rapid non-transcriptional action of the androgen receptor; S. Mink, et al. 14. The discovery ofand function of MTA1s in ER&agr; cytoplasmic sequestration; Rui-An-Wang, R. Kumar. Unique, Previously Undescribed Receptors. 15. Novel, membrane-intrinsic receptors for progesterone and aldosterone; R. Lösel, et al. 16. Current knowledge of the nature and identity of progestin and estrogen membrane receptors in fish gonads; P. Thomas, et al. 17. Evidence supporting a role for GPR30, an orphan member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, in rapid estrogen signaling; E.J. Filardo, et al. 18. A novel non-genomic action of estradiol (E) and testosterone (T): Regulators of microtubule polymerization; V.D. Ramirez, Jingjing Liu Kipp. 19. Evidence that a membrane corticosteroid receptor is an opioid-like receptor; F.L. Moore. 20. Progestins have actions through GABAA receptors; C.A. Frye, S.M. Petralia. 21. Characteristics of a nonclassical membrane estrogen receptor in the endocrine pancreas; A.B. Ropero, A. Nadal. Proteins with Identities or Similarities to Other Non-Receptor Proteins. 22. Protein kinase C isoforms as non-genomic receptors; B.J. Harvey, C.M. Doolan. Chimeras. 23. Membrane estrogen receptors in human spermatozoa: an example of a non-classic steroid receptor located in the membrane; S.M. Kahn, et al. Index.
Cheryl S. Watson University o/Texas Medical Branch Cellular steroid action has been thoroughly studied in the nuclear compartment. However, nuclear steroid receptor mechanisms have been unable to explain some of the rapid activities of steroids, partiCUlarly those which occur in a time frame of seconds to minutes [reviewed in (1;2)]. Based on these and other considerations, an alternative membrane-associated receptor form was long ago proposed to exist (3). Others interpret the location of the steroid receptors mediating these rapid effects as peri membrane or cytoplasmic. New experimental tools have been brought to bear on the topic of receptors for steroids which mediate non-genomic actions, and thus investigative activity and focus regarding this type of steroid receptor has recently increased significantly. However, there may be multiple answers to the question "how do steroids mediate rapid nongenomic effects?" Steroid actions initiated at the cell membrane can impinge on important phases in the lifespan of a cell: proliferation, migration, differentiation, and release of hormones or neurotransmitters functioning as signals to other cells.
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