Preface. Nomenclature. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Introduction. 1.2. Research contribution. 2. WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS. 2.1. introduction. 2.2. The wireless lan standards. 2.3. Wireless lan transceiver systems. 3. PHASE-LOCKED LOOP FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer. 3.3. Phase-locked loop parameters. 3.4. Noise in phase-locked loops. 3.5. Fractional-N synthesizers. 3.6. RMS phase error and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM). 3.7. Conclusion. 4. SYSTEM SIMULATION OF delta-sigma-BASED FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Phase domain model. 4.3. Synthesizer platform evaluation. 4.4. Conclusion. 5. MULTI-MODE D-S BASED FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. An overview. 5.3. A Multi-Mode Multi-Standard Delta-Sigma Based PLL Synthesizer Design. 5.4. The Delta-Sigma Frequency Synthesizer Sub-Blocks Implementation. 5.5. Measured Performance of the implemented Synthesizer. 5.6. Summary and conclusion. 6. IMPROVED PERFORMANCE FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Overview. 6.3. Delta-Sigma controlled adaptive charge pump. 6.4. Synthesizer loop calibration. 6.5. Process Calibration I/C Slew rate & RC time constant. 6.6. VCO Tuning gain calibration. 6.7. Imroved vco band switching. 6.8. Experimental Results. 6.9. Comparison with published results. 6.10. Conclusion. 7. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK. 7.1. Conclusion. 7.2. Further work. APPENDIX A. PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTORS & CHARGE PUMPS. 1. Phase-frequency detectors. 2. Charge pump. 3. PFD/CP characteristics. B. CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS. 1. Reference oscillators. 2. Voltage controlled oscillators. C. PHASE NOISE. 1. Calculation of global phase error from L(f). 2. Phase noise and phase modulation. 3. RMS phase error from phase noise. 4. Residual FM. D. FREQUENCY DIVIDERS. 1. Reference divider. 2. Feedback divider. 3. High speed CMOS divider design. 4. Implemented CML gates. E. CODES & PROGRAMS. INDEX
In this book, the authors outline detailed design methodology for fast frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and wireless communications applications. There is great emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma based phase locked loops from specifications, system analysis and architecture planning to circuit design and silicon implementation. The developed techniques in the book can help in designing very low noise, high speed fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
Covers in detail an efficient design methodology from system specifications to Silicon implementation that reduces silicon re-spin by meeting specifications first time round
Covers in great detail all design and implementation issues associated with Delta-Sigma based Fractional-N synthesizers
Provides an efficient modelling and simulation technique that can be applied both open loop and close loop to accurately predict the designed synthesizer performance
The developed techniques in the book can help in designing very low noise, high speed fractional-N frequency synthesizers