This book examines the evolution of machine design methodology from the Renaissance to the Age of Machines in the 19th century. This premise is based in part on the work of da Vinci scholar Ladislo Reti who translated the last discovered work of Leonardo da Vinci in 1967. In the Codex Madrid, Reti found evidence that Leonardo planned to write a book on basic machine elements and compared the great artist-engineer s drawings to the work of 19th C. machine theorist Franz Reuleaux of Berlin. Reuleaux is credited with classifying the basic elements of machine design and also enumerating six basic classes of mechanisms to change motion from one form to another. Moon s book carries Reti s thesis further and provides detailed analysis, comparing design concepts of engineers of the 15th century Renaissance and the 19th century age of machines from a workshop tradition to the rational scientific discipline used today. The design ideas of Leonardo and Reuleaux are placed in the historical, economic and social context of their times. There is also an appendix with a short description of the famous theatre of machines books of the 15th to the 18th centuries. This book makes use of the unique collection of 230 kinematic models of Reuleaux at Cornell University. Detailed comparisons of 20 basic machine mechanisms such as the slider crank and four-bar linkages in both Leonardo s drawings and Reuleaux s models are made. These models illustrate the elegance and aesthetics of machine design in the 19th century pioneered by Franz Reuleaux. The book hopes to convince the reader that the development of a rational design methodology for machines that grew from the time of Leonardo to the early 20th century was as great a feat as the invention of the machines themselves.
Part 1: Leonardo da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux: Machine Engineers:
Introduction; Modem Applications of Kinematics: Leonardo in your Toothbrush: Kinematic Mechanisms in Daily Life; Deconstructing the Machine: Constructive Elements of Design Leonardo, 'Ingenieur Ordinaire'; Franz Reuleaux 'Father of Kinematics of Machines'; Influence of Leonardo on 19th C. Theory of Machines; Kinematics of Machines: The Geometry of Motion; Visual and Topological Thinking: Reuleaux's Language of Invention; Part 2: The Evolution of Machines :Evolution of Machines in Ancient Times; Visual Kinematic Perception of Mechanisms
Ancient Greek and Roman Machines; Machines in the Bible; Roger Bacon on Marvelous Machines; Scientific and Technical Milieu in the Renaissance Machine Age; Artist-Engineers of the Early Renaissance; Francesco di Giorgio Martini: The Leonardo of Siena; Theatre of Machines Books; Mathematics and the Design of Machines; Imitation or Invention of Machines; The Machine in Art; Art, Engineering and Science; Concepts of Design and Invention by Leonardo and Reuleaux ; Inventors and Engineering Scientists in the 19th Century; The Machine Age in 19th C. Berlin ; Lost Knowledge from the Age of Machines and Mathematical Kinematics; Curves of constant width; Straight-line Mechanisms; Rotary Engines; Prime Mover Machines: Thermodynamics, Kinematics and Materials; Flying Machines; Kinematics of Animal and Human Motion; Leonardo and Reuleaux: A Summary; Part 3: A Comparison of Machines of Leonardo and Reuleaux : Leonardo' s 'Elementi Macchinali' and Reuleaux' s 'Constructive Elements' A Comparison of Leonardo' s Drawings of Mechanisms and Reuleaux' s Kinematic Models; The Four-bar Linkage; The Slider-Crank Mechanism; The Endless Screw or Worm Drive; Belt Drive Mechanism; The Ratchet and Pawl; The Verge Escapement; CamMechanisms; Toothed Wheels and Gears; Water Wheels and Pumps; Reversing or Mangle Mechanism; Friction Wheels; Flywheels and Balance Wheels; The Screw Jack; Coupling Mechanisms; Lazy Tongs Mechanism; Pulleys ; Ball Bearing; Bearing Supports; Wedges and Keys; Springs; Brakes; Part 4:Cited References; Books on the Life of Leonardo da Vinci and as Machine Engineer; Books on the History of Machines in the Industrial Age; Books on the History of the Renaissance in Europe; Books and Articles on Franz Reuleaux and Kinematics Theory of Machines; Books and Articles on Kinematics of Animal and Human Motion; Appendices:I. Summary of 'Theatre of Machines' Books : A From Vitruvius (c.27 BC) to Diderot (1751): Vitruvius (c. 27 BC); Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari (1204); Villard de Honnecourt (c. 1225); Mariano Taccola (1382-1460); F. di Giorgio (1439-1501); Vannoccio Biringucci (1550); Georgius Agricola (1494-1555); Jacque Besson (1540-1576); Agostino Ramelli (1530-1590); Vittorio Zonca (1568-1602); Solomon de Caus (1576-1630); Zeising (1612); Jacob de Strada (1617); G.A. Bockler (1662) ; Jacob Leupold (1724) Denis Diderot (1751).
From the reviews:
"The book has ... a brief introduction to Da Vinci and Reuleaux and their respective codification approaches, an extensive and accessible evaluation of machine designs and design methods as represented in 20 centuries of design manuals and 'theater of machines' books, a brief illustrated reference section on kinematic mechanism components, and an annotated bibliography of historic sources. The book can be used as either a reference or a course resource ... . Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty." (G. E. Herrick, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (5), January, 2008)
"This book ... focuses on two towering figures in the design of kinematic machines which are separated by some 300 years in history, Leonardo da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux. ... The compilation of the material is of course coloured by personal preferences but it is these preferences but it is these preferences which renders the book a highly interesting one. Many figures from the sources as well as photos of model mechanisms make the book a truly unique one." (Thomas Sonar, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1139 (17), 2008)
"This is an interesting book, rich in information. ... At the end, just after Moon's detailed comparison of mechanisms as portrayed and described by Leonardo and Reuleaux, the book includes a dozen plates of Cornell's Reuleaux models. The main bibliography is very impressive ... . Moon hopes that engineering students ... will find stimulation in this book and gain a renewed respect for simple mechanisms and their role in design, and to help them he has included student exercises ... ." (Alexander G. Keller, Technology and Culture, Vol. 50, April, 2009)
Examines the evolution of machine design methodology from the Renaissance to the Age of Machines in the 19th century. This book offers an analysis by comparing design concepts of engineers of the 15th century Renaissance and the 19th century age of machines from a workshop tradition to the rational scientific discipline.