This book examines how to develop effective teaching for meaningful learning in science. It identifies how teachers interpret difficult ideas in science and, in particular, what supports their own learning in coming to a professional understanding of how to teach science concepts to young children. The book investigates how such professional insight emerges in the process of teachers identifying those elements that support their understanding during their own learning. In this paradigm, professional awareness derives from the practitioner interrogating their own learning and identifying implications for their teaching of science. The book draws on a significant body of critically analyzed empirical evidence collated and documented over a five year period involving large numbers of trainee and practicing teachers.