CONTENTS Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxvii Frequently used Abbreviations and Notations xxix Chapter 1. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Space Plasmas 1 1.1. Main properties of space plasma 1 1.1.1. Neutrality of space plasma and Debay radius 1 1.1.2. Conductivity and magnetic viscosity of space plasma 1 1.1.3. The time of magnetic fields dissipation; frozen magnetic fields 1 1.1.4. Transport path of ions in space plasma 2 1.1.5. Space plasma as excited magneto-turbulent plasma 2 1.1.6. Main channels of energy transformation in space plasma 2 1.1.7. Particle acceleration in space plasma and the second fundamental low of thermodynamics 3 1.2. Main properties and origin of CR 4 1.2.1. Internal and external CR of different origin 4 1.2.2. On the main properties of primary and secondary CR 4 1.2.3. Five intervals in the observed CR energy spectrum 5 1.2.4. Main CR properties and origin of CR in the interval 1 7 1.2.5. The anisotropy in energy intervals 1 and 2 7 1.2.6. Relationships between the observed CR spectrum, the anisotropy, the relative content of the daughter nuclei, and the transport scattering path 9 1.2.7. Chemical composition in the range and the expected dependence of and on 11 1.2.8. Chemical composition in the energy range and the nature of the scattering elements in the Galaxy 11 1.2.9. The nature of the energy boundary between intervals 3 and 2 12 1.2.10. The mode of the dependence of L on particle rigidity R from solar modulation data of protons, electrons, and nuclei with various Z 13 1.2.11. The dependence of L on from data of solar CR propagation 15 1.2.12. The features of the solar modulation of the CR spectrum and the measurements of the radial gradient 16 1.2.13. The nature of the CR in energyintervals 3 - 5 16 1.3. Nuclear interactions of CR with space plasma matter 16 1.3.1. Cross sections, paths for absorption, and life time of CR particles relative to nuclear interactions in space plasma 16 1.3.2. CR fragmentation in space plasma 17 1.3.3. Expected fluxes of secondary electrons, positrons, g - quanta, and neutrinos 19 1.3.4. Expected fluxes of secondary protons and antiprotons 22 1.4. CR absorption by solid state matter (stars, planets, asteroids, meteorites, dust) and secondary CR albedo 22 1.5. CR interactions with electrons of space plasma and ionization losses 23 1.5.1. Ionization energy losses by CR nuclei during propagation in the space 23 1.5.2. Ionization and bremsstrahlung losses for CR electrons 25 1.6. CR interactions with photons in space 26 1.6.1. Interactions of CR nucleus with space photons 26 1.6.2. CR electron interactions with the photon field 27 1.7. Energy variations of CR particles in their interactions with magnetic fields 27 1.7.1. Synchrotron losses of energy by CR particles in magnetic fields 27 1.7.2. Acceleration and deceleration of particles in their interactions with moving magnetic fields 29 1.8. CR particle motion in magnetic fields; scattering by magnetic inhomogeneities 30 1.8.1. CR particle motion in the regular magnetic fields frozen into moving plasma formations 30 1.8.2. CR particle moving in essentially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma 31 1.8.3. Two-dimensional model of CR particle scattering by magnetic inhomogeneities of type 32 1.8.4. Scattering by cylindrical fibers with homogeneous field 32 1.8.5. Scattering by cylindrical fibers with field of type 33 1.8.6. Three-dimensional model of scattering by inhomogeneities of the type against the background of general field 35 1.9. The transport path o
Chapter 1 briefly describes the main properties of space plasmas and primary CR. Chapter 2 considers the problem of CR propagation in space plasmas described by the kinetic equation and different types of diffusion approximations. Chapter 3 is devoted to CR non-linear effects in space plasmas caused by CR pressure and CR kinetic stream instabilities with the generation of Alfvèn turbulence. In Chapter 4 different processes of CR acceleration in space plasmas are considered. The book ends with a list providing more than 1,300 full references, a discussion on future developments and unsolved problems, as well as Object and Author indexes.
This book provides an extended review on energetic particles interactions, propagation and acceleration in space plasmas. Its four chapters address key problems in CR Astrophysics and CR Geophysics. Chapter 1 briefly describes main properties of space plasmas and primary CR. Chapter 2 considers the problem of CR propagation in space plasmas. Chapter 3 is devoted to CR non-linear effects in space plasmas. In Chapter 4 different processes of CR acceleration in space plasmas are considered. The chapters contain analytical calculations, nonlinear physics and computer simulations. The book ends with a list providing more than 1,300 full references, a discussion on future developments and unsolved problems, as well as Object and Author indexes. This book will be useful for experts and students in CR research, Astrophysics and Geophysics, and in Space Physics.