Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Ecotoxicology, Ecological Risk Assessment and Multiple Stressors, Poros, Greece, 12- 15 October 2004
The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).
Preface. Contributors. Part I. The Science of Ecotoxicology: Establishing the International Basis for Ecological Risk Assessment. Current Developments in Ecotoxicology and Ecological Risk Assessment; L A.Kapustka.-From Molecules to Ecosystems: Ecotoxicological Approaches and Perspectives; G.D.Arapis.- Protecting the Environment against Ionizing Radiation: The Path Proposed; by 'ICRP', its Origins and Analysis; F. Brechignac.-Eco-epidemiology: a Means to Safeguard Ecosystem Services that Sustain Human Welfare; S.M.Cormier.- Perchlorate: Ecological and Human Health Effects; J. Clarkson et al.- Genetic Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment: an Overview; N. V. Goncharova.- Part II Ecological Risk Assessment and Multiple Stressors. Scientific Basis for Ecotoxicology, Ecological Risk Assessment and Multiple Stressors: Canadian Experience in Defining Acceptable Risk Levels for Infrastructure; R. N.Hull.-Risk Assessment in Romania: Between Needs and Possibilities of Remediation; C.-H. Barbu et al.-Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment for Plant Protection Products in Europe; M. Foudoulakis.- Assessment of Ecological Risk Caused by the Long-Living Radionuclides in the Environment; V.Kashparov.-Effects of Contaminant Exposure on Plants: Implications for Ecotoxicology and Radiological Protection of the Environment; S.A. Geras'kin et al.-Risk Assessment: Radioactive Contaminated Food Products and Exposure Dose of the Population; N.V. Goncharova and D.A.Bairasheuskaya.-Part III.Methods and Tools in Ecotoxicology and Ecological Risk Assessment.A Habitat Suitability Evaluation Technique and its Application to Environmental Risk Assessment;.A.Grebenkov et al.- The QnD Model/Game System: Integrating Questions and Decisions for Multiple Stressors; G. Kiker and I.Linkov.-The Medaka Fish: an Experimental Model in Environmental Toxicology. Its Use for the Survey of Microalgal Toxins: Phycotoxins and Cyanotoxins; S.Puiseux-Dao and M. Edery.-Cytogenetic Effect of Radioactive or ChemicalContamination on Spring Barley Intercalary Meristems Cells; S. Geras'kin et al.-Water Pollution Indicators of Sustainability in Europe and their Application to Coastal Water Quality Evaluation in Italy; E.Comino.-Application of GIS Technologies in Ecotoxicology: a Radioecological Case Study; N.Grytsyuk et al.- Ambient Ozone Phytodetection with Sensitive Clover (Trifolium Subterraneum L. Cv. Geraldton) in Ukraine;O. Blum and N. Didyk.-Part IV. Ecotoxicology and Toxicity Monitoring. Alterations of Agroecosystems in Greece Through Pesticide Use. The "Phalaris Case"; G. Vassiliou et al.-Contribution to Ecological Safety Through Segmented Integrated Pest Management in Greece; G. Vassiliou.-A Preliminary Study of Toxicity by Bioassay of the Wastes of Pulp and Paper Production Units; N.Venetsaneas and J. Iliopoulou-Georgudaki.-Air Pollution Assessment in Volos Coastal Town, Greece; N. Riga-Karandino et al.-Tropospheric Ozone Measurements in the Thetra Mountains and Its Effects on Plants; B. Godzik and P. Fleischer.- Long-Term Monitoring of Tropospheric Ozone in Kiev, Ukraine: Formation, Temporal Patterns and Potential Adverse Effects; Oleg Blum.- Part V Working Group Summaries Hints on Ecotoxicology and Ethics; M.G.Karandinos.-A Framework for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making With Special Reference to Critical Infrastructure: Policy and Risk Management Working Group Summary and Recommendations R. Hull et al.- Methods and Tools in Ecotoxicology and Ecological Risk Assessment.Working group Summary; L. A. Kapustka et al.-Subject Index