Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Advances in CO2 Geological Sequestration in Eastern and Western European Countries, held in Tomsk, Russia, November 15-18, 2004
As is now generally accepted mankind's burning of fossil fuels has resulted in the mass transfer of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, a modification of the delicately-balanced global carbon cycle, and a measurable change in world-wide temperatures and climate. Although not the most powerful greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO) drives climate 2 change due to the enormous volumes of this gas pumped into the atmosphere every day. Produced in almost equal parts by the transportation, industrial and energy-generating sectors, atmospheric CO concentrations have 2 increased by about 50% over the last 300 years, and according to some sources are predicted to increase by up to 200% over pre-industrial levels during the next 100 years. If we are to reverse this trend, in order to prevent significant environmental change in the future, action must be taken immediately. While reduced use of fossil fuels (through conservation, increased efficiency and expanded use of renewable energy sources) must be our ultimate goal, short to medium term solutions are needed which can make an impact today. Various types of CO storage techniques have been proposed to fill this 2 need, with the injection of this gas into deep geological reservoirs being one of the most promising. For example this approach has the potential to become a closed loop system, whereby underground energy resources are brought to surface, their energy extracted (via burning or hydrogen extraction), and the resulting by-products returned to the subsurface.
Contributing Authors.- Preface.- Acknowledgments.- Part I: Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere.- Study of Long-Term Variations of CO2 and CO Concentrations in the Ground Atmospheric Layer near the City of Tomsk (Western Siberia); B.D. Belan et al.- Dynamics of the Vertical Distribution of CO2 and CO Concentrations over Western Siberia (1997-2003); M.Yu. Arshinov et al.- Carbon Balance and the Emission of Greenhouse Gases in Boreal Forests and Bogs of Siberia; E.A. Vaganov et al.- The Interaction of CO2 Between the Atmosphere and Surface Waters of Lake Baikal and the Influence of Water Composition; V.M. Domysheva et al.- Remote Sensing and GIS for Spatial Analysis of Anthropogenic Carbon Oxide Emissions; Yu.M. Polishchuk, O.S. Tokareva.- The Sources of Carcinogenic PAH Emission in Aluminium Production using Soderberg Cells; L.I.Kurteeva et al.- Part II: Permafrost CO2 Storage. Distribution of Permafrost in Russia; V.P. Melnikov and D.S. Drozdov.- Characteristics of Permafrost in Siberia; A.D. Duchkov.-Possibilities of SO2 Storage in Geological Strata of Permafrost Terrain; A.G. Anshits et al.- Cryogels - A Promising Material for Underground Works in Permafrost; L.K. Altunina et al.- Subsurface Carbon Dioxide Storage Through Clathrate Hydrate Formation; P. Jadhawar et al.- Part III: Natural Analogues of CO2 Storage.-What Can We Learn from Natural Analogues?; J. M. Pearce.- Near-Surface Gas Geochemistry Techniques to Assess and Monitor CO2 Geological Sequestration Sites; S. Lombardi et al.- Geochemical Interactions between CO2, Pore-Waters and Reservoir Rocks; I. Czernichowski-Lauriol.- Study of Natural CO2 Emissions in Different Italian Geological Scenarios; N. Voltattorni et al.- Natural Leakage of Helium from Italian Sedimentary Basins of the Adriatic Structural Margin; G. Ciotoli et al.- Tectonically Controlled Methane Escape In Lake Baikal; J.Klerkx et al.- Part IV:Active CO2 Injection Sites.- The IEA Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project; J.B. Riding.- Assessment of the Long-Term Fate of CO2 Injected into the Weyburn Field; M.J. Stenhouse et al.- Strontium Isotope (87Sr/86Sr) Chemistry in Produced Oil Field Waters: The IEA CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project; F. Quattrocchi et al. Optimization of CO2 Injection for Sequestration / Enhanced Oil Recovery and Current Status in Canada; T. Babadagli.- The Use of CO2 and Combustion Gases for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Russia; V.A. Kuvshinov.- Controls of CO2 Filtration in Heterogeneous Reservoirs with Foam-Emulsion Systems; A.G. Telin.- State of CO2 Capture and Subsurface Storage Activities in Germany; B.M. Krooss, F. May.- Geophysical Monitoring of the CO2 Plume at Sleipner, North Sea; A. Chadwick et al.- 4-D Seismics, Gas-Hydrate Detection and Overpressure Prediction as a Combined Methodology for Application to CO2 Sequestration; S. Persoglia et al.- Part V:The Way Forward.- The Role of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century; I. Lakatos, J. Lakatos-Szabó.- Stakeholder Acceptance and Understanding of CO2 Geological Storage; S. Vercelli, R. Tambelli.-CO2GeoNet - An EC-funded 'Network of Excellence' to study the geological Storage of CO2; N. Riley.-
Broad treatment of the problem, from pollution source to disposal
State-of-the-art overview of CO2 natural analogue sites, their evolution and their use for testing innovative monitoring technologies
Up-to-date examples of active, industrial-scale applications of CO2 geological sequestration
Innovative topics treated, such as clathrate formation and geological storage in permafrost terrains