1 Catastrophic Terrorism: Risk Assessment Of The New Threats To First Responders. 1.1 The new situation for First Responders since 9/1 1/2001. 1.2 Lessons learned from past terror attacks. 1.2.1 Sarin attacks in Japan. 1.2.2 Terror attacks with civilian aircraft as guided missiles in New York City and Washington, D.C.-
2 Current Threats To First Responders. 2.1 Threats to First Responders due to radioactive materials. 2.2 Threats to First Responders due to biological materials .2.3 Threats to First Responders due to chemical materials.-
3 Current Detection Capabilities And Their Limitations. 3.1 Radiation detection: the challenge due to alpha emitters. 3.2 Chemical detection: assessment of the hardware capability. 3.2.1 Oxygen sensors. 3.2.2 Combustible gas sensors. 3.2.3 Electrochemical toxic gas sensors. 3.2.4 Colorimetric tubes 3.2.5 Choosing between electrochemical sensors and tubes. 3.2.6 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). 3.2.7 Photo-ionization Detectors (PIDs). 3.2.8 Strategies for integrating chemical detection techniques in. WMD response.-
4 Current Capabilities Of First Responders In Different Countries. 4.1 Austria. 4.1.1 Operational logistics. 4.1.2 National constraints. 4.2 Israel. 4.2. Security threats. 4.2.2 Integrated countermeasures. 4.3 Russia 4.3.1 Counter-terrorism logistics. 4.3.2 Countering radiological and nuclear terrorism. 4.4 Slovenia. 4.4.1 Past events. 4.4.2 National response. 4.5 United States of America. 4.5.1 Past and present threats. 4.5.2 Lessons (to be) learned. 4.6 Italy. 4.6.1 Background. 4.6.2 Response capability based on uniform systems and equipment. 4.6.3 Eight steps to CBRNE emergency response. 4.6.4 Possible model for E.U. development.-
5 Future Requirements Of The First Responder Community. 5.1 Potential legal aspects relative to First Responders. 5.1.1 The presumption of response to terrorism. 5.1.2 Anticipation of Samaritanism. 5.2 First Responder Needs in the U.S. 5.2.1 Regulatory approach. 5.2.2 CBRNE preparedness.-
6 EU/US Public-Private Partnerships In Developing Protective Countermeasures. 6.1 The role of the business sector in homeland security. 6.2 Cooperation between the business sector, government and First Responders.-
7 The Way Forward. 7.1 Outlook: Where do we go from here? 7.1.1 Capabilities. 7.1.2 Research. 7.1.3 Procurement. 7.1.4 Training. 7.2 Fifty actions recommended. 7.3 Conclusions.
September 11, 2001 in the U.S., March 11, 2004 in Madrid - just two examples of a series of major terror attacks against NATO member states on both sides of the Atlantic. We now know that international terrorism is capable of transboundary planning and military style execution of attacks, resulting in several thousand dead and wounded. In the future even larger terror attacks can no longer be ruled out, including the deployment of weapons of mass destruction. This new form of catastrophic terrorism poses a major challenge to the first responder community in their search and rescue operations, since these new threats represent an unprecedented risk for their health, possibly even questioning their own survival. Since the first responders are the first line of defence of every community in the aftermath of such a terror attack, it is essential for every community to ensure that its first responders are able to provide their valuable services even in such extreme situations.
In this important new book a group of experts represents the current knowledge on the various terrorism threats to first responders resulting from the novel use of conventional weapons, as well radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Also, the current situation in selected countries of different sizes and practical experience with terrorism countermeasures (Austria, Israel, Slovenia, Russia, U.S.) is reviewed, focusing on the national operational logistics and the individual needs for improving the present situation. Finally, this book offers innovative solutions to strengthen the level of protection of the first responders, culminating in fifty-one practically applicable recommendations.
State-of-the-art analysis of threat scenarios due to catastrophic terrorism, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Critical review of the performance of the international first responder community during past major terror attacks
Assessment of the current capabilities and needs of the first responders in selected countries
Practical advice on how to protect the first responders in case of a catastrophic terror attack and how to enable them to continue their operations