Acknowledgements. Introduction: Tempora mutant et nos cum illis mutamur. I: Background and Education. 1: At the 19th Century's End. 1.1. Union of Norway and Sweden. 1.2. The Royal Frederik University in Kristiania. 1.3. Early Investigation of the Aurora and Geomagnetism. 2: A New Abel. 2.1. The Birkeland Family. 2.2. High School and University Education. 2.3. Postgraduate Research in France, Switzerland and Germany. II: Geomagnetic and Solar System Research. 3: Aurora in a Vacuum Chamber. 3.1. Electromagnetic Wave Experiments. 3.2. Early Laboratory Simulations. 3.3. Birkeland's Offices and Laboratories at the University. 3.4. Terrella as Anode Experiments. 4: The Norwegian Auroral Expeditions. 4.1. Birkeland's First Expeditions. 4.2. Arctic Expedition of 1902 - 1903. 4.3. Classification of Geomagnetic Disturbances. 4.4. The Permanent Station at Haldde Mountain. 4.5. Controversies with the British School. 5: The Universe in a Vacuum Chamber. 5.1. Terrella as Cathode Experiments. 5.2. Sunspots and the Solar Magnetic Field. 5.3. Comet Tails. 5.4. Saturn's Rings. 5.5. Zodiacal Light. 5.6. Conflicts with Carl Størmer. 6: Fast Switches and Electromagnetic Cannons. 7: In as Little as Four Years. 7.1. Plasma Torch and Nitrogen Fixation. 7.2. Foundation of Norsk Hydro. 7.3. Conflict with Sam Eyde. 7.4. Marcus Wallenberg. 7.5. Other Technical Applications. III: Birkeland the Man. 8: As Seen in His Own Time. 8.1. Teacher and Experimenter. 8.2. Birkeland as a Popular Author. 8.3. Positions and Honors. 8.4. Nominations for the Nobel Prize. 9: Consummatus in brevi, explevit tempora multa. 9.1. Birkeland's Health. 9.2. Marriage and Divorce. 9.3. Sojourn in Egypt. 9.4. Death in Tokyo. 9.5. Many Friends. 9.6. Birkeland's Will. IV: Birkeland's Heritage. 10: From Small Acorns. 10.1. Science Education in Norway.10.2. Influence on Solar-Terrestrial Research. 11: In Memoriam. 11.1. Kristian Birkeland Research Fund. 11.2. Birkeland Symposium. 11.3. Birkeland Lecture Series. 11.4. The Norwegian 200 Kroner Banknote. Appendix 1. Birkeland's Scientific Publications. Appendix 2. Archives and Unpublished Sources. Appendix 3. Patents. Appendix 4. Letters. Bibliography. Index of Names.
This biography conveys the life and accomplishments of a Norwegian hero to the English speaking world, illustrating the beginnings of collaboration between science and industry. It shows how work in a small country laid the foundation for the green revolution.
Conveys the life and accomplishments of a Norwegian hero to the English speaking world
Illustrates the beginnings of collaboration between academic science and industry
Demythologizes progression of physics as linear; rather a human activity marked by fits and starts
Shows how work in a small country laid the foundation for green revolution