TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface . x Section 1 : Archaeology 1. Chronology and cultural affinity of the kurgan Arzhan-2 complex according to archaeological data K. Chugunov, II. Parzinger, A. Nagler 1 2. Some chronological problems of European Scythia: archaeology and radiocarbon A Alekseev 9 3 Migrations of early nomads of the Eurasian steppe in the context of climatic changes N. Bokovenko 21 4. The Northern Black Sea steppes in the Cimmerian epoch S. Makhortykh 35 Section 2: Chronology 5. Radiocarbon, the calibration curve and Scythian chronology. J. van der Plicht 45 6. The occupation history of the southern Eurasian steppe during the Holocene: chronology, the calibration curve and methodological problems of the Scythian chronology. G. Zaitseva, and B van Geel 63 7. 14 dating of the Siberian Steppe Zone from Bronze Age to Scythian time. J. Gorsdorf, H. Parzinger, A. Nagler 83 8. North-west Caspian Sea steppe: environment and migration crossroads of pastoral culture population during the third millennium BC. N. Shishlina 91 9. Chronology of Pazyry 2 and Ulandryk 4 kurgans based on high resolution radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology - a step towards more precise dating of Scythian burials. 1. Hajdas, G Bonani, T Y.Slusarenko, M Seifert 107 10. Problems of construction of a radiocarbon chronology for the time period 900-300 calBC. A. Michczyi 117 v 11. Possibifities and limitations of the use of stable isotopes ( and 15 from human bone collagen and carbonate as an aid in migration studies. M. Van Strydonck, M Boudin, A Ervynck 125 12. OSL dating in Archaeology. A. Bluszcz 137 Section 3: Environmental study 13. The Sun, dimate change and the expansion of the Scythian culture after 850 BC. B. van Geel, N.A. Bokovenko, N.D. Burova, K.V. Chugunov, V.A. Dergachev, V.G. Dirksen, M. Kulkova, A. Nagler, H. Parzinger J. van der Plicht, S.S. Vasiliev, G.I. Zaitseva 151 14. Large-scale periodicity of climate change during the Ilolocene. V. A. Dergachev and B van Geel 159 15. Archaeological and ethnographic toxins in museum collections. B.Derham 185 16. Changes in palaeoenvironment and human migrations in the centre of the russian plain. A Aleksandrovski and E. Aleksadrovskaya 199 17. Environmental changes of the northeastern Black Sea's coastal region during the middle and late Holocene. N. Bolichovskaya, A. Porotov, M. Kaitamba, E. Fouache 209 18. Prehistoric Environment, human migrations and origins of pastoralism in northern Eurasia. P. M. Dolukhanov 225 19. Environmental study of the Bronze-Iron Age transition period of Eastern Europe. A. Gaigalas 243 20. Applications of geochemistry to paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Southern Siberia. M.Koulkova 255 21. Pollen and plant macroremain analyses for the reconstruction of environmental changes in the early Metal period. L. Kalnina,A. Cerina, A Vasks 275 22. Mid to late Holocene climate change and its influence on cultural development in South Central Siberia. V. G Dirksen and B van Geel 291 23. Archaeological cultures on the background of climatic changes the Holocene, Poland. A. Pazdur 309 vi 24. Horse remains from the Arzhan-1 and Arzhan-2 Scythian monuments. N. Bourova . 323 vii
This book is a collection of the articles presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW 979859) held in St. Petersburg, from the 15-18 November 2003 in the Hermitage Museum. The title of the workshop was "The impact of the environment on Human Migration in Eurasia". More than 40 scientists from Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia took part. The themes of the workshop focused on the origin, development, interactions, and migrations of prehistoric and ancient populations, specifically the Scythians, in Eurasia and their relationships with the environment of the time. The discussion of these questions necessitated the participation of specialists from a wide range of academic fields. Beyond any doubt, the environment played an important role in the life of ancient nomadic populations, forming the basis of their economies and influencing various aspects of their mode of life. In this respect, the collaboration of specialists in the Humanities and Science is essential for the solution of scientific questions concerning these peoples. Over the past few years, a large amount of new proxy data related to environmental changes during the Pleistocene and the Holocene and their impact on human life has become available. Our discussion was predominantly limited to environmental changes related to the Holocene. In st this period of about 10000 years, the main focus was on the 1 millennium BC.