Contributing Authors. 1. Introduction; Daniel Vanderveken.
Part I: Reason, Action and Communication. 2. The Balance of Reason; Marcelo Dascal. 3. Desire, Deliberation and Action; John R. Searle. 4. Two Basic Kinds of Cooperation; Raimo Tuomela. 5. Speech Acts and Illocutionary Logic; John R. Searle and Daniel Vanderveken. 6. Communication, Linguistic Understanding and Minimal Rationality in Universal Grammar; André Leclerc.
Part II: Experience, Truth and Reality in Science. 7. Truth and Reference; Henri Lauener. 8. Empirical Versus Theoretical Existence and Truth; Michel Ghins. 9. Michel Ghins on the Empirical Versus the Theoretical; Bas C. van Fraassen.
Part III: Propositions, Thought and Meaning. 10. Propositional Identity, Truth According to Predication and Strong Implication; Daniel Vanderveken. 11. Reasoning and Aspectual-Temporal Calculus; Jean-Pierre Desclés. 12. Presupposition, Projection and Transparency in Attitude Contexts; Rob van der Sandt. 13. The Limits of a Logical Treatment of Assertion; Denis Vernant. Part IV: Agency, Dialogue and Game-Theory. 14. Agents and Agency in Branching Space-Times; Nuel Belnap. 15. Attempt, Success and Action Generation: a Logical Study of Intentional Action; Daniel Vanderveken. 16. Pragmatic and Semiotic Prerequisites for Predication; Kuno Lorenz. 17. On how to be a Dialogician; Shahid Rahman and Laurent Keiff. 18. Some Games Logic Plays; Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen. 19. Backward Induction Without Tears? Jordan Howard Sobel.
Part V: Reasoning and Cognition in Logic and Artificial Intelligence. 20. On the Usefulness of Paraconsistent Logic; Newton C.A. da Costa, Jean- Yves Béziau, and Otávio Bueno. 21. Algorithms for Relevant Logic; PaulGochet, Pascal Gribomont and Didier Rossetto. 22. Logic, Randomness and Cognition; Michel de Rougemont. 23. From Computing with Numbers to Computing with Words - From Manipulation of Measurements to Manipulation of Perceptions; Lofti Zadeh.
their communication abilities? The ?rst part of the book,Reason, - tion and Communication, contains a general philosophicaldiscussion of these important questions. In Chapter 2,The Balance ofReason, Dascal discusses the ideal of aperfectly reliable balance of reason, an ideal challenged by scepticism. He shows that the balance metaphor is compatible with two di?erent conceptions of rationality which are both present in Western thought. The ?rst conception expects the balance of reason to provide conclusive decisionsin every rational deliberation. Thesecond conception ackno- edges the limits of human reason. It is clearly more appropriate for h- dling uncertainty, revision of intentions and more apt to face scepticism. Leibnitz, one of the most eminent rationalist philosophers, made a s- stantial contribution to both conceptions of rationality. Dascal discusses in detailhis ideas. He shows how Leibnizcameto grips with the balance metaphor. Thestateof equilibrium of thescalesof a balancemirrorsthe equilibriumofindi?erence betweentheargumentsforandthearguments against a belief, a decision or an action. Yet an indi?erence of that kind seems to model arbitrariness rather than rationality. Leibniz, as Dascal stresses, was well aware oftheproblem. Heacknowledged that the b- ance of reason, when it is conceived as a metric and digital balance, lies open to the objection raised above, but he worked out another version of the balance of reason to circumvent this. We can conceive of a balance which permits us to directly compare the "values" of what is placed on the scales without reducing them to universal measuring units.
Clearly and systematically presents and discusses major hypotheses, issues and theories advanced today in the analytic and logical study of language, thought and action
Contains major contributions by leading logicians, analytic philosophers, linguists and computer scientists that are of interest and accessible to graduate students and scholars
Contains an extented bibliography