1 Theoretical.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Real Surfaces.- 1.2 Factors Affecting Surface area.- 1.3 Surface Area from Particle Size Distributions.- 1.4 References.- 2 Gas Adsorption.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Physical and Chemical Adsorption.- 2.3 Physical Adsorption Forces.- 2.4 Physical Adsorption on a Planar Surface.- 2.5 References.- 3 Adsorption Isotherms.- 3.1 Pore Size and Adsorption Potential.- 3.2 Classification of Adsorption Isotherms.- 3.3 References.- 4 Adsorption Mechanism.- 4.1 Langmuir and BET Theories (Kinetic Isotherms).- 4.1.1 The Langmuir Isotherm.- 4.1.2 The Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) Theory.- 4.2 The Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) Theory of Multilayer Adsorption.- 4.3 Adsorption in Microporous Materials.- 4.3.1 Introduction.- 4.3.2 Aspects of Classical, Thermodynamic Theories for Adsorption in Micropores: Extension of Polanyi's Theory.- 4.3.3 Aspects of Modern, Microscopic Theories for Adsorption in Micropores: Density Functional Theory and Molecular Simulation.- 220.127.116.11 Density Functional Theory (DFT).- 18.104.22.168 Computer Simulation Studies: Monte Carlo Simulation and Molecular Dynamics.- 22.214.171.124 NLDFT and Monte Carlo Simulation for Pore Size Analysis.- 4.4 Adsorption in Mesopores.- 4.4.1 Introduction.- 4.4.2 Multilayer Adsorption, Pore Condensation and Hysteresis.- 4.4.3 Pore Condensation: Macroscopic, Thermodynamic Approaches.- 126.96.36.199 Classical Kelvin Equation.- 188.8.131.52 Modified Kelvin Equation.- 4.4.4 Adsorption Hysteresis.- 184.108.40.206 Classification of Hysteresis Loops.- 220.127.116.11 Origin of Hysteresis.- 4.4.5 Effects of Temperature and Pore Size: Experiments and Predictions of Modern, Microscopic Theories.- 4.5 References.- 5 Surface Area from the Langmuir and BET Theories.- 5.1 Specific Surface Area from the Langmuir Equation.- 5.2 Specific Surface Area from the BET Equation.- 5.2.1. BET-Plot and Calculation of the Specific Surface Area.- 5.2.2 The Meaning of Monolayer Coverage.- 5.2.3 The BET Constant and Site Occupancy.- 5.2.4 The Single Point BET Method.- 5.2.5 Comparison of the Single Point and Multipoint Methods.- 5.2.6 Applicability of the BET Theory.- 5.2.7 Importance of the Cross-Sectional Area.- 5.2.8 Nitrogen as the Standard Adsorptive for Surface Area Measurements.- 5.2.9 Low Surface Area Analysis.- 5.3 References.- 6 Other Surface Area Methods.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Gas Adsorption: Harkins and Jura Relative Method.- 6.3 Immersion Calorimetry: Harkins and Jura Absolute Method.- 6.4 Permeametry.- 6.5 References.- 7 Evaluation of the Fractal Dimension by Gas Adsorption.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Method of Molecular Tiling.- 7.3 The Frenkel-Halsey-Hill Method.- 7.4 The Thermodynamic Method.- 7.5 Comments About Fractal Dimensions Obtained from Gas Adsorption.- 7.6 References.- 8 Mesopore Analysis.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Methods based on the Kelvin equation.- 8.3 Modelless Pore Size Analysis.- 8.4 Total Pore Volume and Average Pore Size.- 8.5 Classical, Macroscopic Thermodynamic Methods versus Modern, Microscopic Models for Pore Size Analysis.- 8.6 Mesopore Analysis and Hysteresis.- 8.6.1 Use of Adsorption or Desorption Branch for Pore Size Calculation?.- 8.6.2 Lower Limit of the Hysteresis Loop- Tensile Strength Hypothesis.- 8.7 Adsorptives other than Nitrogen for Mesopore Analysis.- 8.8 References.- 9 Micropore Analysis.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Micropore Analysis by Isotherm Comparison.- 9.2.1 Concept of V-t curves.- 9.2.2 The t- Method.- 9.2.3 The ?s method.- 9.3 The Micropore Analysis (MP) Method).- 9.4 Total Micropore Volume and Surface Area.- 9.5 The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) Method.- 9.6 The Horvath-Kawazoe (HK) Approach and Related Methods.- 9.7 Application of NLDFT: Combined Micro/Mesopore Analysis With a Single Method.- 9.8 Adsorptives other than Nitrogen for Super- and Ultramicroporosimetry.- 9.9 References.- 10 Mercury Porosimetry: Non-Wetting Liquid Penetration.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Young-Laplace Equation.- 10.3 Contact Angles and Wetting.- 10.4 Capillarity.- 10.5 The Washburn Equat
The growth of interest in newly developed porous materials has prompted the writing of this book for those who have the need to make meaningful measurements without the benefit of years of experience. One might consider this new book as the 4th edition of "Powder Surface Area and Porosity" (Lowell & Shields), but for this new edition we set out to incorporate recent developments in the understanding of fluids in many types of porous materials, not just powders. Based on this, we felt that it would be prudent to change the title to "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Porosity and Density". This book gives a unique overview of principles associated with the characterization of solids with regard to their surface area, pore size, pore volume and density. It covers methods based on gas adsorption (both physi and chemisorption), mercury porosimetry and pycnometry. Not only are the theoretical and experimental basics of these techniques presented in detail but also, in light of the tremendous progress made in recent years in materials science and nanotechnology, the most recent developments are described. In particular, the application of classical theories and methods for pore size analysis are contrasted with the most advanced microscopic theories based on statistical mechanics (e.g. Density Functional Theory and Molecular Simulation). The characterization of heterogeneous catalysts is more prominent than in earlier editions; the sections on mercury porosimetry and particularly chemisorption have been updated and greatly expanded.
Unique overview of principles associated with the characterization of solids with regard to their surface area, pore size and density