This book uses real-life examples to analyze techniques for undertaking the task of making an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a project. The text offers suggestions on how to quantify the effects on people's lives; comparative end results of using certain renewable and non-renewable resources; how to cost economic development against sustainability; and how to measure the unmeasurable: sunsets, tropical forests, mountains and more.
I: General Background. 1: General Information. 1.1. The purpose of this book. 1.2. Structure. 1.3. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). 1.4. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1.5. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). 1.6. Environmental and Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (ESIA). 1.7. The necessity of developing an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for most projects. 1.8. What is economic development? 1.9. What is sustainability? 1.10. The link between economic development and sustainable environment. 1.11. The carrying capacity of the environment. 1.12. Social, economic and environmental interaction in sustainable development. 1.13. The EIA problem. 1.14. The decision-making process. 1.15. The EIA report. Internet references for Chapter 1. 2: Projects and Impacts. 2.1. defining the objectives of the study. 2.2. Impacts caused by projects. 2.3. Conclusion on impacts. Internet references for Chapter 2. 3: Criteria. 3.1. Criteria, attributes or components. 3.2. Factor Analysis (FA). 3.3. Steps for Environmental Impact Assessment. Internet references for Chapter 3. II: Elements of Environmental Appraisal. 4: Information for EIA. 4.1. Defining the problem. 4.2. Available tools for project appraisal. 4.3. Tools for impact identification. Internet references for Chapter 4. 5: Techniques for Environmental Appraisal. 5.1. Geographic Information System (GIS). 5.2. Contingency Valuation (CV). 5.3. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). 5.4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA). 5.5. Input-Output analysis (IO). 5.6. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). 5.7. Multicriteria Analysis (MCA). 5.8. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). 5.9. Mathematical Programming (MP). 5.10. Actual examples of multicriteria analysis. 5.11. Risk Analysis (RA). 5.12. Techniques comparison. 5.13. Strategic Environmental Assessment. Internet references for Chapter 5. III: EIA in the Urban Scenario. 6: EIA and Urbanization. 6.1. People's participation. 6.2. EIA and the city. 6.3. Urban and regional projects. 6.4. The execution of joint projects. 6.5. Sustainable impact. 6.6. Indicators. 6.7. Indicators selection. 6.8. Measuring the quantity of information provided by indicators. 6.9. Monitoring. Internet references for Chapter 6. Appendix: Mathematical Background to Understand the Fundamentals of Modern Techniques for Project Appraisal. A.1. Introduction. A.2. Mathematical foundation of the Analytical Hierarchy Process. A.3. Foundation of Mathematical Programming. A.4. Mathematical foundation of input/output analysis. A.5. Statistical notions of Factor Analysis. A.6. The notion of opportunity cost. A.7. The notion of shadow prices. A.8. The notion of sensitivity analysis. Internet references for Appendix. Cited references on the Internet by industries. Road Map for Environmental Impact Assessment. Flowchart and road map for Environmental Impact Assessment. Glossar
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