I: A Closer Look at Wind. Bibliography.
II: CO2 Exchange between the Air and the Leaf. CO2 Diffusive Resistance Theory and Leaf Boundary Layer Resistance. Structure of the Leaf Boundary Layer. 1. Analysis of the leaf boundary layer with a schlieren optical system. 2. Wind speed distribution in the leaf boundary layer. Near-surface Airflow. 1. Visual identification of water flow in the water channel. 2. Boundary layer of the model leaf parallel to the laminar flow. 3. Boundary layer of the model leaf with an attack angle to the laminar flow. 4. Boundary layer of the model leaf freely vibrating in the turbulent flow.
III: Photosynthetic Rate in the Aspects of the Leaf Boundary Layer. A. Demonstration of the Significance of the Leaf Boundary Layer. 1. Diffusive resistance value rb. 2. Stomal resistance value rs and mesophyll resistance value rm. 3. Calculation of the photosynthetic rate. B. Measurement of the Effect of a Wind on the Photosynthetic Rate Using a Wind Tunnel for Plant Growth. 1. The wind tunnel for plant growth. 2. Photosynthetic rate of a cucumber leaf and wind speed. 3. Effect of wind speed and humidity on the photosynthetic rate. 4. Effect of wind speed and light intensity on the photosynthetic rate. 5. Leaf shape and photosynthetic rate. C: Attack Angle and Photosynthetic Rate. 1. Attack angle and photosynthetic rate. 2. Attack angle and dry matter production or NAR. D: Leaf Vibration and Photosynthetic Rate. E: Distribution of photosynthetic rate on the leaf surface. 1. Method of measuring the vertical distribution of photosynthetic rate on the leaf surface. 2. Distribution of photosynthetic rate on the leaf surface.
IV: Photosynthetic Rate of a Plant Community and Wind Speed. A. Methods of Measuring the Photosynthetic Rate of a Plant Community. 1. Aerodynamic method. 2. Heat balance method. 3. Method of measuring soil respiration rate. B. Photosynthetic rate of a lowland rice community (paddy field) and changes in its growth process. 2. Relationship between the photosynthetic rate of a lowland rice community and wind speed. 3. Methods of measuring the photosynthetic rate of plant communities. 4. Photosynthetic rates of five plant communities in their natural environments. 5. Vegetative variation and photosynthetic rate of a plant community.
V: Gas Exchange between the Pneumatophores and Roots of Mangroves by Photosynthesis of Pneumatophore. A. Pneumatophores with Chlorophyll. B. Pneumatophore Variation and Gas Exchange with the Roots. C. Gas Exchange between the Pneumatophores and Roots in a Growing Field. 1. Measurements of photosynthetic and respiration rates of pneumatophores. 2. O2 Diffusion from the pneumatophore to the root. D. Relationship between the Variety of the Pneumatophores and the Tidal Level. E. Mechanism of Gas Exchange between Pneumatophores and the Roots. Active Transport across a Membranous Structure of the Pneumatophore. F. Experimental Planting of Mangrove.
The association between plants and wind that first comes to mind might be plant damage from a strong wind such as a typhoon or monsoon. The winds this book will 1 discuss, however, are not this strong at all, but rather are only 2 m·s· or weaker, like a breeze that gently blows over a farming area. Such a breeze, in fact, instills vitality into plants and increases their growth rates. This book is an attempt to explain these beneficial effects on plants from a field perspective. One fundamental process necessary for plant growth is photosynthesis. Since it is a photochemical reaction, this synthesis has been studied with emphasis on light. Yet to shed light on dry-matter or carbohydrate production by plants, it is indispensable to pursue research not only into the mechanism of photosynthesis but also into photosynthetic production itself. I have observed various phenomena occurring in the production field, and have thereby realized it necessary to recognize photosynthesis as a phenomenon that carbon dioxide (C0 ) in the air diffuses into chloroplasts in the leaves, and to study 2 which environmental factors promote C0 diffusion into the leaves. 2 In this book, I am going to describe the effects of the natural environment on photosynthetic production, placing focus on the leaf boundary layer as an environmental factor for plant production.