OF 'SOLIDARITY' IN UK SOCIAL WELFARE Here then, perhaps, is a British version of solidarity in social welfare, but early there are strong tensions between the powerfully liberal individualistic strands of the British understanding of the functions of the state and the socialistic or communitarian tendency of a commitment to universal welfare provision. In the search for the roots of this understanding of welfare we shall survey, fitst, the historical background to these tensions in some early British political philosophers, starting with Hobbes and ending with Mill. We then consider the philosophical and social influences on the Beveridge Report itself, and we will trace the emergence of the philosophy of the welfare state in the era following the Second World War. Finally we consider the contemporary debate, as it relates to the 'Third Way' thinking of New Labour. 2. A mSTORICAL SKETCH In the previous section we observed that the philosophy underlying the Beveridge Report could be described as 'liberal collectivism'. What are the historical antecedents of this strange amalgam of individualism and collectivism? Within the short scope of this chapter, any account of the philosophical history must be little more than a sketch, but we can perhaps understand most debates in British socio-political thought as a continuing dialogue with the well known claim of Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan that all political institutions are founded on egoistic motives.
Preface and Acknowledgments. List of Figures. List of Tables. Solidarity, Health and Social Care in Europe Introduction to the Volume; R. ter Meulen, et al. Part I: Solidarity as a Public Value: Empirical Issues. Modernisation, Solidarity and Care in Europe The Sociologist's Tale; W. Arts, R. Verburg. Popular Support for Health Care in Europe Review of the Evidence of Cross-National Surveys; J. Gevers, et al. Solidarity and Care in Sweden; Å. Bergmark, et al. Solidarity and Care in the United Kingdom; M. Johnson, L. Cullen. Solidarity and Care in Italy; C. Gori, N. Pasini. Solidarity and Care in Germany; A. Evers, M. Klein. Solidarity and Care in Austria; K. Leichsenring, et al. Solidarity and Care in the Netherlands; J. Van Der Made, et al. Reforms in Health and Social Care in Europe: The Challenge to Policy; R. Muffels, R. Verburg. Part II: Solidarity as a Moral Concept: Philosophical Issues. Reconsidering Solidarity by Conceptual Analysis; R. Houtepen, R. ter Meulen. Solidarity, Citizenship and Selective Distributive Justice in Health Care; N. Pasini, M. Reichlin. Organ Transplantation in Italy: Forced Solidarity? M. Reichlin. Beyond Justice and Moralism: Modernity and Solidarity in the Health Care System; R. Houtepen, et al. Personal Budgets for the Elderly; R. Houtepen, R. ter Meulen. Solidarity in Universal Welfare - The Case of Sweden; Å. Bergmark. The Historical and Philosophical Background of `Solidarity' in UK Social Welfare; A. Campbell, S. Jones. A Case Study: The Long Term Care of Older People; A. Campbell, S. Jones. Which Theories of Solidarity? From the Austrian Case to the European Context; S.P. Riekmann. The Comprehensive Long-TermCare Allowance Scheme: The Last Grand Enterprise in Austrian Social Policy? S.P. Riekmann. Solidarity, Justice, Reflexivity and Participatory Citizenship; R. Houtepen, R. ter Meulen. Epilogue: The Fugure of Solidaristic Health and Social Care in Europe; W. Arts, et al. Notes on the Contributors. Index of Subjects. Index of Names.