Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Carrara is a city and comune in the province of Massa-Carrara Tuscany, Italy, famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione river, some 100 km west-northwest of Florence.Its motto is Fortitudo mea in rota Latin for My force is in the wheel. Settlements in the area are known since the 9th century BC, when here the Apuan Ligures lived here. The current town originated from the borough built to house workers in the marble quarries created by the Romans after their conquest of Liguria in the early 2nd century BC. In the Middle Ages it was a Byzantine and Lombard possession, and then belonged to the bishops of Luni and the Malaspina family, turning itself into an autonomous commune in the early 13th century; during the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, Carrara usually belonged to the latter party. The Bishops acquired it again in 1230, their rule ending in 1313, when the city was given in succession to the Republics of Pisa, Lucca and Florence. Later it was acquired by Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan.