Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. As the 20th century started, most of Africa, with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia was under colonial rule. By the 1980s, most nations were independent. Military systems reflect this evolution in several ways: Growth of indigenous knowledge and skill in handling modern arms Established colonial armies of mainly indigenous troops officered by Europeans Rebellions, resistance and "mop up" operations. Weakening of European colonial power due to World War I and World War II. Decolonization and the transition to the militaries of the new African states.